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Use of bait traps for Glossina spp.

This month's feature highlights a paper by Paul Ndegwa on Development of odour-baited traps for Glossina swynnertoni (Diptera: Glossinidae) from Bulletin of Entomological Research 89: 255-261. The author's abstract from the paper is as follows:

Three new prototype traps, (S1-S3), were developed during studies of the behavioural ecology of Glossina swynnertoni Austen in Kenya and Tanzania. The traps were compared in Latin square experiments relative to the regular biconical trap as a standard and a selection of other conventional tsetse traps. Observations were also made on fly behaviour in the vicinity of traps using electric nets and sticky materials. When baited with acetone and 1-octen-3-ol, the S1 trap was 3.5 times as effective in catching G. swynnertoni in Kenya as the biconical traps. In Tanzania, the relative performance of the S1 and biconical traps differed; also, both traps were found to be inferior to an all-black, sticky 1-m2 target. A second prototype (S2) performed slightly better than the biconical traps, but was still inferior to the black target. The final prototype (S3) was 2.9 times as effective as the biconical trap and performed as well as the black target. The potential for further improvement of traps for capturing G. swynnertoni and flies of the G. moristans Westwood group is discussed.

Click here for a full version of the paper.

A selection of abstracts from Review of Medical and Veterinary Entomology is given below, relating to the use of bait traps for Glossina spp.

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TI: Responses of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) and other Diptera to carbon dioxide in linear and dense forests.
AU: Mohamed-Ahmed, M. M.\ Mihok, S.
JN: Bulletin of Entomological Research
YR: 1999
VL: 89
NO: 2
PP: 177-184
LA: En
MS: 35 ref.
AA: International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, PO Box 30772, Nairobi, Kenya.
AB: The responses of G. f. fuscipes and other Diptera to carbon dioxide were studied in linear and dense forests along the shores of Lake Victoria, Kenya, in 1996-97. Flies were caught in biconical traps and were intercepted with electric nets while in flight near traps. Carbon dioxide dispensed at a high rate (5 litre min(-1) in linear forest failed to increase the numbers of tsetse attracted to or caught in traps. In contrast, catches of non-biting Muscidae, Stomoxyinae and Tabanidae were improved by up to 11 times. Inside dense forest, carbon dioxide released at half this rate increased both the numbers of female tsetse attracted to a trap and the catches in a trap by about 2-3 times. Catches of male tsetse were, however, not affected. Striking improvements for other Diptera were also seen (up to 102 times). Under a variety of conditions, unbaited biconical traps attracted many Diptera to the vicinity of a trap, but caught few flies due to low capture efficiencies (typically <10%). In contrast, efficiency estimates for G. f. fuscipes were good, varying from 37 to 82% in different habitats and seasons. These results are discussed in relation to the search for practical odour attractants for riverine tsetse.
DE: carbon dioxide\forests\Glossina fuscipes fuscipes\insect attractants\flight\Muscidae\Tabanidae\traps\tsetse traps
GL: Kenya
AN: 0J08703821


TI: Responses of tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) to vegetation in Zimbabwe: implications for population distribution and bait siting.
AU: Vale, G. A.
JN: Bulletin of Entomological Research: Supplement Series
YR: 1998
VL: 88
NO: Supplement 1
PP: 59 pp.
LA: En
MS: 75 ref.
AA: Regional Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Control Programme for Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe, Box A560, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe.
AB: In Zimbabwe, Glossina morsitans morsitans and G. pallidipes were caught from traps and targets baited with ketones, phenols and 1-octen-3-ol. Averaged over a year, catches in mopani woodland (dominated by Colophospermum mopane), thicket (including Acacia nigrescens, Xeroderris stuhlmannii, Adansonia digitata and Kirkia acuminata) and scrubland (thicket with few trees as a result of elephant damage) were much the same, but the catches in the mopani relative to the thicket changed several-fold from one season to another. Within vegetation types, catches varied up to 10-fold between separate sites 200 m apart and showed site ´ day interactions. Continuous use of a site for 3 weeks showed no catching-out of the flies in the immediate vicinity. Catches were depressed by »40% when traps were beside fallen trees, by up to 82% when under leafy bushes, and by 39% when the trap entrance faced upwind. Catches doubled when traps were in clearings. Oblique shade from distant trees reduced catches by 30%, due to a reduced dose of odour from cooler dispensers. Artificial canopies of leaves above traps reduced catches by depressing the light-orientated movement inside the trap. The canopies stopped flies from showing their normal preference for initially alighting on the black half of blue-black targets. Representations of fallen trees and leafy bushes reduced catches by obstructing visual stimuli and denying access. Tsetse flew readily through gaps in hedged enclosures provided the gap was at least 1 m wide, on the downwind side, and odour was present. Catches from sites in dense vegetation were enhanced up to 4 times by reducing the canopy and clearing bushes. Tsetse did not persist near odour sources. A computerized model of tsetse moving randomly in space restricted by dense bushes suggested that: (i) the speed of dispersal within any one vegetation type is not affected greatly by the abundance of bushes, but can be changed 10-fold where vegetation types mix; (ii) active flies tend to concentrate in areas with few dense bushes; (iii) the most reliable indices of tsetse abundance are produced by targets, at sites which maximize catches and which may be so open as to be atypical of the vegetation type; and (iv) the response to bushes cannot alone account for tsetse distribution between vegetation types. Siting rules for catch maximization are offered, allowing catches to be increased up to 10 times. Bait sampling alone is unsatisfactory for elucidating tsetse distribution. The model of movement offers a new starting point for interpreting catches and predicting the distributions and invasion rates of G. m. morsitans and G. pallidipes, but needs refinement before application to other tsetse species, stomoxyines, non-biting muscoids and tabanids. Experimental aids for developing better models are suggested.
DE: population distribution\Glossina morsitans morsitans\mathematical models\Glossina
pallidipes\phenols\ketones\octenol\1-octen-3-ol\traps\trees\bushes\s crub\thicket\woodlands\Colophospermum mopane\Acacia\Acacia nigrescens\Xeroderris\Xeroderris stuhlmannii\Adansonia digitata\Kirkia\Kirkia acuminata\behaviour\movement\trapping\tsetse screens\fly targets\vegetation\canopy\tsetse traps
GL: Zimbabwe
AN: 0J08701960


TI: Activity patterns in Glossina longipennis: a field study using different sampling methods.
AU: Makumi, J. N.\ Green, C.\ Baylis, M.
JN: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
YR: 1998
VL: 12
NO: 4
PP: 399-406
LA: En
MS: 27 ref.
AA: Kenya Trypanosomiasis Research Institute, PO Box 362, Kikuyu, Kenya.
AB: Studies on the daily activity of G. longipennis at Galana Ranch using a black odour-baited electrocuting target confirmed its crepuscular activity profile. Activity started at 05.00-05.30 h and peaked at 06.00-06.30 h, stopped by 09.00 h, then started again at
17.00-17.30 h with a peak at 18.30-19.00 h, ceasing by 19.30 h. Females made up 60% of the overall catch, and tended to arrive later than males. Other stationary sampling methods (trap, stationary ox) gave similar results. With the stationary methods, very few flies were caught outside the periods of peak activity (only 1.5% of the total between 09.00 and 17.00 h); the ox was the only stationary bait to catch any flies between 10.00 and 16.00 h. More flies were caught throughout the day at mobile baits (8.3% of the male and 2.3% of the female catch was taken between 09.00 and 17.00 h). Mobile baits caught considerably more males than females (females were 17% of the catch). These males had on average higher fat and haematin reserves. Similar nutritional differences were not observed for females. There were fewer older females (ovarian category 3 or more) in mobile compared to stationary baits, and a lower proportion of the youngest males (wing fray category 1) at natural compared with artificial baits.
DE: nutritional
state\odours\activity\patterns\sampling\methodology\baits\males\fat\haematin\Glossina longipennis\diurnal activity\cattle\tsetse screens\behaviour\host-seeking behaviour\physiology
GL: Kenya
AN: 0J08700590


TI: Effects of fly abundance on catch index of traps for Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Diptera: Glossinidae).
AU: Muhigwa, J. B. B.\ Saini, R. K.\ Hassanali, A.
JN: Journal of Medical Entomology
YR: 1998
VL: 35
NO: 2
PP: 148-152
LA: En
MS: 17 ref.
AA: International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology, Box 30772, Nairobi, Kenya.
AB: The effect of fly abundance on the catch index of traps (i.e. the ratio of catch in the experimental trap per catch in a reference trap) and that of rain as a source of variation in fly abundance were investigated for G. fuscipes fuscipes around Lake Victoria (Rusinga Island and Kisui village), western Kenya, using odour-baited (i.e. with aged zebu cow urine alone or with acetone) and colour-improved traps, in October-November 1995. There was a
significant inverse relationship between the catch index of experimental traps and abundance of flies. At low tested abundance (<10 flies/trap/day) there was a 3-fold increase of the catch of females in the experimental trap compared with the control. Rainfall alone explained 22-87% of the total variation of fly abundance. It is suggested that fly abundance should be considered in evaluating baits for G. f. fuscipes or when using
traps for monitoring. The relative depression of the catch index at high abundance may be related to avoidance of conspecifics. Flies entered standard traps in an inverse proportion to the number observed at the trap. Females approached traps in greater numbers
when fewer decoys (dead flies) were placed on traps.
DE: rain\traps\tsetse traps\biconical traps\Glossina fuscipes fuscipes\Glossina fuscipes\zebu\odours\bait traps\population ecology\monitoring\environmental factors\sampling
GL: Kenya
AN: 0J08605297


TI: Electroantennogram responses of tsetse flies (Glossina pallidipes) to host odours in an open field and riverine woodland.
AU: Voskamp, K. E.\ Otter, C. J. den\ Noorman, N.
JN: Physiological Entomology
YR: 1998
VL: 23
NO: 2
PP: 176-183
LA: En
MS: 50 ref.
AA: Sensory Physiology Group, Department of Animal Physiology, University of Groningen, PO Box 14, 9750 AA Haren, Netherlands.
AB: The way in which G. pallidipes senses odours at different locations in odour plumes in both an open field and a wooded area was investigated. The antennal responses (EAGs) from stationary living female G. pallidipes were recorded 15 m upwind and at various (60,
40, 20, 10, 5 and 1 m) distances downwind from a synthetic host odour source (containing 1-octen-3-ol, acetone and 2 phenols), in the natural habitat of the fly in Zimbabwe using a portable electrophysiological device. Experiments were performed in a flat open area (an airstrip) and in riverine woodland. Differences between responses in different environments were determined by comparing various parameters of the EAGs (intermittency, frequency,
amplitude, duration and rate of depolarization). It was found that a fly senses odours as puffs that, further downwind, contain less odour and pass less frequently. In an open field downwind from the source, tsetse perceive more olfactory information than upwind for
only 10-20 m, whereas in woodland, olfactory responses remain higher and more frequent than upwind up to at least 60 m. In an open field, olfactory information rapidly increases when approaching the odour source from 20 m and in woodland from 5 m onwards. It is proposed that averaging odour information over time may be of minor importance in long-range location of odour sources. The results suggest that tsetse may smell odour-baited targets from at least 60 m downwind and that the number of flies responding to and being caught by these baits may be higher in woodland than in an open field.
DE: smell\responses\odours\Glossina pallidipes\physiology\electrophysiology\electroantennograms\woodlands\antennae\1-octen-3-ol\acetone\phenols\octenol
GL: Zimbabwe
AN: 0J08604336


TI: The control of Glossina morsitans morsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae) in a settled area in Petauke District (Eastern Province, Zambia) using odour-baited targets.
AU: Bossche, P. van den
JN: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
YR: 1997
VL: 64
NO: 4
PP: 251-257
LA: En
MS: 15 ref.
AA: Regional Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Control Programme (RTTCP) P.O. Box A560, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe.
AB: A trial to control G. m. morsitans with the use of 980 odour-baited (acetone), insecticide-impregnated (0.1% deltamethrin) targets was conducted in a 300 km(2) area in the Eastern Province of Zambia, that is highly cultivated and with a cattle density of about 8 cattle/km(2), between 1989 and 1991. Targets were deployed in suitable tsetse habitats along roads and tracks. The effect of the targets on the tsetse population and on the transmission of tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiases was monitored by means of man-walked fly rounds and sentinel herds, respectively. The apparent density of tsetse in the trial area and in adjacent areas, declined rapidly after targets had been deployed. Trypanosomiasis incidence in the trial area decreased significantly but did not completely disappear. It is concluded that odour-baited targets are effective in controlling Glossina m. morsitans in highly cultivated areas even when deployment is restricted to suitable tsetse habitat. It is suggested that tsetse control operations should be designed so that either the invasion pressure is low from adjacent areas, or the size of the area is large for a central challenge-free area can be created.
DE: Glossina morsitans morsitans\Zambia\Glossinidae\disease vectors\vector control\vector-borne diseases\tickborne diseases\trypanosomiasis\acetone\deltamethrin
GL: Zambia
AN: 0I06600006


TI: Chemoecological role of mammalian urine in host location by tsetse, Glossina spp. (Diptera: Glossinidae).
AU: Madubunyi, L. C.\ Hassanali, A.\ Ouma, W.\ Nyarango, D.\ Kabii, J.
JN: Journal of Chemical Ecology
YR: 1996
VL: 22
NO: 6
PP: 1187-1199
LA: En
MS: 42 ref.
AA: International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), PO Box 30772, Nairobi, Kenya.
AB: Trap catch size was used to investigate whether Glossina pallidipes and G. longipennis could distinguish between the urine of the African buffalo (Synceros caffer), cattle and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) at Nguruman in southwest Kenya. NG2G traps baited with aged urine of these bovids caught significantly more of each tsetse than did the controls. The mean catch of either tsetse species in traps baited with aged urine of buffalo and cattle (tsetse hosts) and waterbuck (a non-host) did not differ significantly. Aged urine from both tsetse hosts (buffalo and cattle) and the non-host (waterbuck) was found to contain 4-cresol and 3-n-propylphenol in about the same ratio. However, the aged urine from other tsetse hosts (bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) and warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus)) lacked 3-n-propylphenol. Cattle urine had to be aged outside the soil to produce statistically significant increases in the trap catch of G. pallidipes. Furthermore, patches of soil on which fresh urine of cattle was deposited, and in which it was aged, failed to effect a significant increase in the trap catch of either G. austeni, G. brevipalpis or G. pallidipes as Gazi, southeast Kenya. The likelihood of tsetse either differentiating its hosts from non-hosts or locating favoured hosts by the urine scent appears remote under natural conditions. It is more likely that the chemical signals critical for host location by the tsetse emanate from skin glands rather than volatilize from the urine of mammals. DE: Glossina\phenols\urine\Glossina pallidipes\Glossina longipennis\Glossina austeni\Glossina brevipalpis\Synceros caffer\Kobus ellipsiprymnus\Potamochoerus porcus\Phacochoerus aethiopicus\host-seeking behaviour\bait traps\odours\4-cresol\3-n-propylphenol\soil\wild animals\Bovidae\Suidae
GL: Kenya
AN: 0J08601093


TI: Natural host odours as possible attractants for Glossina tachinoides and G. longipalpis (Diptera: Glossinidae).
AU: Spath, J.
JN: Acta Tropica
YR: 1997
VL: 68
NO: 2
PP: 149-158
LA: En
MS: 31 ref.
AA: Service de Lutte contre la Trypanosomiase Animale et les Vecteurs (Projet Ivoiro-Allemand-GTZ), Bouake, Cote d'Ivoire.
AB: As strictly haematophagous insects, tsetse flies feed on a wide variety of wild and domestic animals. Although these are mainly mammals, some tsetse species also feed on reptiles. This study investigated whether the odours of several potential natural tsetse hosts may be used as novel attractants to improve the catch of G. tachinoides or G. longipalpis in biconical traps. The odour of a living monitor lizard (Varanus niloticus) had no effect on the catch of G. tachinoides. Hexane skin washings of monitor lizard and warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) dispensed in small quantities improved the catch of G. tachinoides significantly by factors of up to 1.34 and 1.46, respectively. Skin washing of bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) did not increase the catch of G. tachinoides, but the synthetic phenolic fraction of bushbuck urine enhanced it significantly by 1.81´. The catch of G. longipalpis was improved significantly by the urines of warthog, domestic pig and bushbuck by factors of 1.58, 1.91 and 2.51, respectively. In relation to the quantity of evaporated odour, bushbuck and warthog urine seem to be of particular interest for further attractant studies. The effect of tested host odours on the catch of G. tachinoides and G. longipalpis is compared with data of other tsetse species and with the frequency these hosts are fed on by tsetse flies. Bushbuck is one of the principal natural hosts of both Glossina species investigated, and of all odours tested, bushbuck urine and its synthetic phenolic fraction improved the catch of both tsetse species the most.
DE: Glossina tachinoides\Glossina longipalpis\odours\attractants\behaviour\biconical traps\Varanus niloticus\Phacochoerus aethiopicus\Tragelaphus scriptus\urine\pigs\insect attractants\Varanus\hosts\host-seeking behaviour\wild animals
GL: Cote d'Ivoire
AN: 0V06801732\0J08601092\7D01900309\0I06600003


TI: Odour attractants for tsetse: Glossina austeni, G. brevipalpis and G. swynnertoni.
AU: Brightwell, R.\ Dransfield, R.
JN: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
YR: 1997
VL: 11
NO: 3
PP: 297-299
LA: En
MS: 16 ref.
AA: SNV Netherlands Development Organization, Box 30776, Nairobi, Kenya.
AB: The effects of acetone, cow urine and octenol on catches of G. austeni, G. brevipalpis and G. pallidipes were studied at Bodhai, Garissa District, Kenya, using modified NG2F traps. The effects of octenol on G. swynnertoni and G. pallidipes at Barkitabu, Narok District, Kenya, were also studied. The odour bait combinations used other than the control with no bait were: acetone only; acetone and cow urine; acetone, cow urine and octenol. With G. pallidipes at Bodhai, acetone doubled the catch of males and females, cow urine added a further 60-100%, but octenol gave a slight non-significant increase. For G. austeni, acetone and cow urine gave an increase in male and female catches, although only the increase for males was significant. With G. brevipalpis, the addition of octenol produced a clear increase in catches of males and females, although while the increase was significant for females, it was not quite significant for males. At Barkitabu, the addition of octenol to acetone and cow urine increased the G. swynnertoni catches by 80% for males and 40% for females, although neither effect was quite significant.
DE: Glossina austeni\Glossina brevipalpis\Glossina swynnertoni\tsetse traps\trapping\sampling\attractants\Glossina pallidipes\insect attractants\octenol\1-octen-3-ol\acetone\urine\cattle
GL: Kenya
AN: 0J08600590


TI: Methods for dispensing odour attractants for tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae).
AU: Torr, S. J.\ Hall, D. R.\ Phelps, R. J.\ Vale, G. A.
JN: Bulletin of Entomological Research
YR: 1997
VL: 87
NO: 3
PP: 299-311
LA: En
MS: 28 ref.
AA: ODA/IPMI Tsetse Project, c/o Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Control Branch, Harare, Zimbabwe.
AB: Methods for dispensing tsetse attractants using sealed polyethylene sachets and bottles were studied in the laboratory and in Zimbabwe. 1-Octen-3-ol (octenol), 4-methylphenol [p-cresol] and 3-n-propylphenol were dispensed singly or as blends from sachets 25-200 cm(2) in surface area and with a wall thickness of 0.06-0.32 mm; butanone was dispensed from polyethylene bottles. The release rates of attractants, assessed gravimetrically or by gas chromatographic analysis of volatiles released, were independent of the amount present. The rates were related directly to surface area, inversely related to wall thickness and increased exponentially with temperature. With blends of the attractants, the release rates of the two phenols were directly proportional to the concentration present, but that of octenol showed an exponential dependence. A similar exponential effect was seen with blends of the attractants and an involatile diluent. For mixtures of chemicals, the ratio of the released components was not affected significantly by temperature, sachet size or wall thickness. Release rates from polyethylene sachets and bottles in the field varied 100-fold according to temperature differences related to the time of day, season, and degree of insolation. Day-degree models to predict the losses of attractants from a polyethylene sachet in shade or in full sunlight were highly correlated (r(2) = 0.84 and 0.81, respectively) with observed losses. The practical implications of these findings are discussed.
DE: octenol\temperature\solar radiation\1-octen-3-ol\polyethylene\sachets\bottles\seasonality\phen ols\gas
chromatography\p-cresol\3-n-propylphenol\acetone\butanone\techniques \release\attractants\Glossina\environmental factors
GL: Zimbabwe
AN: 0J08503594


TI: Diel activity patterns and host preferences of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) along the shores of Lake Victoria, Kenya.
AU: Mohamed-Ahmed, M. M.\ Odulaja, A.
JN: Bulletin of Entomological Research
YR: 1997
VL: 87
NO: 2
PP: 179-186
LA: En
MS: 32 ref.
AA: International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), PO Box 30772, Nairobi, Kenya.
AB: Diurnal activity patterns and host preference of G. f. fuscipes were studied in forest and linear habitats along the shore of Lake Victoria, Kenya. The objective was to identify the preferred hosts of G. f. fuscipes, the odours of which may be attractive to this species. Hourly catches of flies in biconical traps were related to changes in the weather and the prevalence of hosts in the vicinity of traps. Flies were mainly active between 0800 and 1600 h, with males peaking around 1100 h and females around 1300 h. Activity of flies correlated directly with light intensity and temperature, but indirectly with relative humidity. Humans, livestock (cattle and dogs) and the monitor lizard, Varanus niloticus, were the predominant hosts, although a significant positive correlation with fly catches could only be established with the prevalence of lizards. Wild ruminants and suids were also fed on. Blood meal identification by microscopic and serological methods showed that 73-98% of G. f. fuscipes fed on monitor lizards irrespective of host prevalence, season or location. The significance and possible epidemiological importance of the relationship between G. f. fuscipes and monitor lizards are discussed.
DE: host preferences\wild animals\Varanus\Glossina fuscipes fuscipes\man\cattle\dogs\Varanus niloticus\Kenya\Glossina fuscipes\livestock\behaviour\activity\blood-meals\Glossina fuscipes\traps\biconical traps\Glossina fuscipes\light\temperature\Africa
GL: Kenya
AN: 0J08503085


TI: Host odour composition affects host location efficiency of tsetse
(Diptera, Glossinidae).
AU: Groenendijk, C. A.\ Takken, W.
JN: Physiological Entomology
YR: 1996
VL: 21
NO: 3
PP: 203-211
LA: En
MS: 38 ref.
AA: Department of Entomology, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, Netherlands.
AB: Marked Glossina pallidipes were released downwind of an odour source in the field in Zimbabwe in 1993-94 and the percentage recaptured at the source on the same day was measured. In the absence of odour, 1.3% of the marked tsetse released from a box or refuge were recaptured, independent of the distance between release point and odour source. The distance was varied from 10 to 100 m. When natural ox odour or a blend of carbon dioxide, acetone, octenol and phenols was dispensed, untransformed recapture percentages of box-released tsetse decreased from 18% for tsetse released at 10 m to 2% for tsetse released at 100 m. Recapture percentages were significantly higher than in the absence of odour at all release distances for ox odour and for release distances up to 75 m downwind for the artificial odour. When a combination of acetone, octenol and phenols or carbon dioxide on its own was dispensed, recapture percentages decreased from 6% for tsetse released at 10 m to 0% for tsetse released at 100 m. With these odours, recapture percentages were higher than in the absence of odour when tsetse were released at 20 m from the source, but were lower than recaptures in the presence of ox odour or the artificial mixture with carbon dioxide. Recapture percentages of flies spontaneously leaving refuges were higher than those of box-released tsetse. Proximity of source had no effect on the recapture percentage of refuge-leaving tsetse and host-location efficiency was close to 100% when host odour was detected at 30 m or less. The results are discussed in relation to the host location strategy of tsetse.
DE: orientation\smell\carbon dioxide\acetone\octenol\phenols\mark release recapture\Glossina pallidipes\behaviour\host-seeking behaviour\Zimbabwe
GL: Zimbabwe
AN: 0J08502681


TI: The initial flight direction of tsetse (Diptera: Glossinidae) exposed to natural and synthetic ox odour.
AU: Groenendijk, C. A.\ Griffiths, N. T.\ Takken, W.
JN: Proceedings of the Section Experimental and Applied Entomology of the Netherlands Entomological Society
YR: 1996
VL: 7
PP: 241-246
BN: ISBN 90-71912-14-0
LA: En
MS: 13 ref.
AA: Department of Entomology, Wageningen Agricultural University, PO Box 8031 EH, Wageningen, Netherlands.
AB: In the Zambezi Valley, Zimbabwe, the behaviour of tsetse released 10 m downwind of an odour source was studied with a video camera and with electric nets. Video studies showed that in the absence of odour, 46% of the released Glossina pallidipes turned downwind and 32% turned upwind. Tsetse left the tsetse release box (TRB) at a constant rate. When an artificial odour mixture containing carbon dioxide, acetone, octenol and phenols was used, significantly fewer tsetse, 35%, turned downwind and more tsetse, 37%, turned upwind. In the presence of odour, tsetse left the TRB later and not at a constant rate. When the TRB was placed in a complete ring of electric nets, the release of natural ox odour changed the distribution of tsetse to the downwind electric nets compared to the no odour treatment. Artificial odour, with and without carbon dioxide, had no effect on the distribution of tsetse over the electric nets. The difference between the video study and the electric net study is attributed to the 50% efficiency of electric nets. It is inferred that 10% of the tsetse departing from the TRB react to the presence of odour immediately.
DE: insect attractants\cattle\odours\orientation\video recordings\electrocuting grids\carbon dioxide\acetone\octenol\1-octen-3-ol\phenols\Glossina pallidipes\physiology\host-seeking behaviour\Zimbabwe\Glossina
GL: Zimbabwe
AN: 0J08502220


TI: The effect of wind speed on the flight responses of tsetse flies to CO(2): a wind-tunnel study.
AU: Paynter, Q.\ Brady, J.
JN: Physiological Entomology
YR: 1996
VL: 21
NO: 4
PP: 309-312
LA: En
MS: 17 ref.
AA: Department of Biology, Imperial College, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berks SL5 7PY, UK.
AB: Female Glossina morsitans morsitans were video-recorded in a wind-tunnel as they entered, in cross-wind flight, a broad plume of CO(2) (a component of host odour). At a wind speed that corresponds with peak catches in the field (p0.6 m s(-1) odour produced both significant upwind turning responses (in-flight anemotaxis) and kinetic responses (reduced flight speed and increased sinuosity (°m(-1)). At a wind speed of p0.2 m s(-1) flies displayed anemotactic, but not kinetic, responses to odour. At very low wind speeds (0.1 m s(-1)) neither upwind turning responses nor kinetic responses to odour were detected. The results are discussed with regard to current theory of host-location by tsetse.
DE: anemotaxis\chemotaxis\carbon dioxide\orientation\wind speed\flight\responses\environmental factors\Glossina morsitans morsitans\behaviour\host-seeking behaviour
AN: 0J08502216


TI: Olfactory basis of host location by mosquitoes and other haematophagous Diptera.
CT: Olfaction in mosquito-host interactions [edited by Bock, G. R.; Cardew, G.].
AU: Cork, A.
YR: 1996
PP: 71-88
BN: ISBN 0-471-96362-3
LA: En
MS: 78 ref.
AA: Natural Resources Institute, Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, UK.
AB: The behavioural role of odours released by mosquito hosts is poorly understood, indeed for many species it is still uncertain whether olfactory cues play a significant part in host location. Generalist attractants, such as CO(2), have found application in mosquito trapping systems, and yet more host-specific attractants, such as L-lactic acid, remain of questionable value. Recent work with other haematophagous Diptera, notably Glossina, has shown that by a coordinated multidisciplinary approach it is possible to develop odour-baited trapping systems with a high level of attractiveness and specificity. Many of the compounds shown to attract Glossina have been tested with mosquitoes, and one of these, 1-octen-3-ol, attracts female mosquitoes of a number of species, but only in the presence of CO(2). The behavioural significance of other compounds identified as host attractants of haematophagous Diptera, such as phenols, indoles and carboxylic acids, are currently under investigation. Efforts to produce a host odour attractant for the highly anthropophilic species Anopheles gambiae have been hindered by the chemical nature of the compounds associated with its human host, although a number of short-chain fatty acids identified in sweat samples have been shown to be electrophysiologically active.
DE: host-seeking behaviour\smell\Glossina\heat\carbon dioxide\1-octen-3-ol\octenol\phenols\indoles\sweat\man\insect attractants\Culicidae\behaviour\attractants
AN: 0J08502124


TI: Responses of Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) to synthetic repellents in the field.
AU: Torr, S. J.\ Mangwiro, T. N. C.\ Hall, D. R.
JN: Bulletin of Entomological Research
YR: 1996
VL: 86
NO: 5
PP: 609-616
LA: En
MS: 33 ref.
AA: ODA/IPMI Tsetse Project, c/o Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Control Branch, Harare, Zimbabwe.
AB: In Zimbabwe, studies were made of the responses of G. pallidipes to known and candidate repellents. Various chemicals, dispensed at ca. 5-10 mg/h, were placed beside epsilon traps already baited with a blend of acetone, 1-octen-3-ol, 4-methyl phenol and 3-n-propyl phenol. Pentanoic or hexanoic acids or acetophenone halved the catch and 2-methoxyphenol reduced the catch by 90%. There were no consistent differences in the responses of males and females. Pentanoic acid or acetophenone or 2-methoxyphenol at an unbaited trap reduced the catch by 40%, 75% and 60%, respectively. Baiting traps with a combination of pentanoic acid, acetophenone and 2-methoxyphenol did not reduce the catch below that produced by 2-methoxyphenol alone. Pentanoic acid and 2-methoxyphenol reduced the efficiency of traps from ca. 40% to 20%, but acetophenone had no significant effect. Acetophenone and 2-methoxyphenol halved the numbers of tsetse attracted to a target baited with acetone, octenol and phenols but none had a significant effect on the proportion that landed. 2-Methoxyphenol significantly reduced the numbers of tsetse attracted to a source of natural ox odour, but only pentanoic acid had a significant effect on feeding responses, reducing the proportion that fed on an ox from 59 to 45%. It was concluded that these repellents do not provide any useful degree of protection against trypanosomiasis. In areas where tsetse are abundant (500 bites/ox/day) and infection rates in tsetse are high (>5%) it is highly unlikely that any repellents would be useful. However, in areas where tsetse are less abundant (1 bite/ox/day) and/or infection rates are low (ca. 0.5%), the potent, unidentified repellents present in human odour might effectively complement the control of disease using trypanocidal drugs.
DE: insect repellents\tsetse traps\Epsilon traps\man\insect attractants\odours\feeding behaviour\acetone\octenol\4-methyl phenol\3-n-propylphenol\1-octen-3-ol\Glossina pallidipes\pentanoic acids\hexanoic acids\acetophenone\2-Methoxyphenol\repellents\Zimbabwe\cattle\Glossi na\Glossina\repellents\Africa\Glossina
GL: Zimbabwe
AN: 0J08501010\0I06500003


TI: The design of target barriers for tsetse flies, Glossina spp. (Diptera: Glossinidae).
AU: Muzari, M. O.\ Hargrove, J. W.
JN: Bulletin of Entomological Research
YR: 1996
VL: 86
NO: 5
PP: 579-583
LA: En
MS: 15 ref.
AA: Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Control Branch, Box CY52, Causeway, Harare, Zimbabwe.
AB: Two small-scale experiments were carried out in October-December 1992 and April-July 1993 in the Zambezi Valley, Zimbabwe, to test the effectiveness of narrow target barriers against re-invasion by G. pallidipes and G. morsitans morsitans. The barriers consisted of either 1 or 2 lines of targets, with the targets placed at distances of ca. 16 m apart within the lines. The targets were made of a single sheet of black cloth, and were baited with acetone, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-n-propyl phenol and 4-methyl phenol released at ca. 500, 0.4, 0.1 and 0.8 mg/h, respectively. At the 16-m spacing the targets are so close together that a fly could scarcely fail to see at least one target as it crossed the barrier. Nonetheless, in both cases, flies penetrated the barriers with a probability of ca. 10% as judged by catches in odour-baited epsilon traps on either side of the barrier. (In the 1st experiment, targets were deployed on day 7 and remained untreated until day 13 when they were sprayed with 1% deltamethrin; in the 2nd experiment, odour-baited targets were deployed after 12 days and trap catches were recorded for a further 19 days before the targets were sprayed with insecticide). Narrow barriers, even at very high target density, are ineffective against tsetse invasion. This accords with previous theoretical predictions and mark-recapture studies, and suggests that wider barriers are needed for the prevention of re-invasion of cleared areas by tsetse.
DE: barriers\vector control\chemical control\tsetse traps\pyrethroid insecticides\Glossina pallidipes\Glossina morsitans morsitans\tsetse screens\Glossina\control\trapping\Zimbabwe\Glossina\deltamethrin\con trol\Glossina\Glossina\control\Glossina\control\Glossina\insect attractants\acetone\octenol\4-methyl phenol\3-n-propylphenol\1-octen-3-ol\Glossina\Glossina\control\Afric a\Glossina
GL: Zimbabwe
AN: 0J08501009\0I06500003


TI: Upwind flight of tsetse (Glossina spp.) in response to natural and synthetic host odour in the field.
AU: Torr, S. J.\ Mangwiro, T. N. C.
JN: Physiological Entomology
YR: 1996
VL: 21
NO: 2
PP: 143-150
LA: En
MS: 31 ref.
AA: Tsetse Control Branch, Harare, Zimbabwe.
AB: In Zimbabwe, studies were made of the flight responses of Glossina pallidipes and G. morsitans morsitans to synthetic and natural ox odour using arrangements of electric nets. Tsetse flying away from a target showed a significant upwind bias when a blend of carbon dioxide (2 litre/min), acetone (500 mg/h), octenol (0.4 mg/h), 4-methylphenol (0.8 mg/h) and 3-n-propylphenol (0.1 mg/h) was dispensed 15 m upwind, with p35% flying upwind. Without carbon dioxide this percentage was significantly reduced to 15% which was not significantly different from that with no odour (8%). This pattern was not altered by reducing the doses of acetone, octenol and phenols by 10-100´, to levels comparable to those produced by an ox. With natural ox odour or a synthetic equivalent of ox odour dispensed from a ventilated pit 8 m upwind of the target, p28% flew upwind. This was reduced significantly to 15% if carbon dioxide was removed. In studies using a 17 m line of nets arranged orthogonally across the prevailing wind line, p50% of the catch was caught on the downwind side in the absence of odour. This increased significantly to p60% when acetone, octenol and phenols were dispensed 15 m upwind, with or without carbon dioxide. With a shorter line (9 m) or an incomplete one (16.5 m long with 5 ´ 1.5 m wide gaps along its length) there was no change in the proportion caught downwind. For all 3 lines, dispensing odour upwind increased the catch 2-5´ on both the up- and downwind sides of the nets. It is concluded that a stronger upwind response to host odour is elicited when carbon dioxide is present. It is suggested that in nature upwind flight is very imprecisely orientated, with tsetse making flights up and down an odour plume 'searching' for a host.
DE: flight\wind\odours\cattle\Glossina pallidipes\Glossina morsitans morsitans\behaviour\host-seeking behaviour\Zimbabwe\Glossina\Glossina\Glossina
GL: Zimbabwe
AN: 0J08406240\0I06400012


TI: Search for tsetse attractants: a structure-activity study on 1-octen-3-ol in Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Diptera, Glossinidae).
AU: Van der Goes van Naters, W. M.\ Bootsma, L.\ Otter, C. J. den\ Belemtougri, R. G.
JN: Journal of Chemical Ecology
YR: 1996
VL: 22
NO: 2
PP: 343-355
LA: En
MS: 25 ref.
AA: Department of Animal Physiology, University of Groningen, PO Box 14, 9750 AA Haren (Gn), Netherlands.
AB: Trapping tsetse flies belonging to the palpalis group still relies totally upon luring by visual cues, even though odour-baited trapping is used effectively against the morsitans-group species. 43% of the antennal olfactory cells of G. f. fuscipes, a member of the palpalis group, respond to 1-octen-3-ol. For this species, a structure-activity relationship between 1-octen-3-ol analogues, in which carbon chain length and the configuration of the hydroxyl and p-bond moieties are varied, and biological activity, is reported. Although the optimum chain length for all cells sensitive to 1-octen-3-ol is 8 and most cells give lower responses when the hydroxyl function is omitted, there is a clear division into 2 groups. One group is diverse and represents cells that appear indifferent to the presence or position of the p bond; many will respond to such disparate structures as acetone and 3-methylphenol as well as to 1-octen-3-ol. In the other group, the structural requirements for the stimulus are more stringent; the cells appear to be specifically tuned to 1-octen-3-ol. Their thresholds are 3 orders of magnitude lower than those of the former group. The existence of 2 clusters points to a functional division in the olfactory sense. It is suggested that the latter low-threshold group is involved in host detection from a distance while the former diverse group is involved in host discrimination at close-range. Trap harvests with 1-octen-3-ol as a bait may have been disappointing because the appropriate mixture for generating a landing response on the traps is still lacking.
DE: smell\electrophysiology\insect attractants\1-octen-3-ol\structure activity relationships\host-seeking behaviour\odours\Glossina fuscipes fuscipes\octenol\attractants\Glossina fuscipes
AN: 0J08405425


TI: The response of tsetse flies to artificial baits in relation to age, nutritional and reproductive state.
AU: Groenendijk, C. A.
JN: Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata
YR: 1996
VL: 78
NO: 3
PP: 335-340
LA: En
MS: 25 ref.
AA: Department of Entomology, Wageningen Agricultural University, PO Box 8031, 6700 EH, Wageningen, Netherlands.
AB: In various vegetation types in Zimbabwe during the wet and dry seasons, the catches of Glossina pallidipes and G. morsitans morsitans at a target baited with odour (acetone, 1-octen-3-ol and 2 phenols) were positively correlated with catches of the same species at an unbaited net. No correlation existed between target catches and hand net catches of tsetse flies sitting on the vegetation. G. pallidipes females at a target and at an unbaited net were older than those caught from vegetation. Of the female G. pallidipes caught at the target, 46% were in the first 3 days of pregnancy. Of those caught at the unbaited net, significantly fewer, 21%, were in this stage. G. pallidipes males caught from vegetation contained more fat (3.07 ± 0.333 mg) than those caught at the unbaited net (2.06 ± 0.339 mg) or at the target (2.19 ± 0.218 mg). It is inferred that target catches consisted predominantly of tsetse which were already in flight when they sensed the stimuli from the target, and that target catches were biased towards female G. pallidipes in the first 3 days of pregnancy.
DE: activity\flight\baits\age\sex\ovarian development\fat\acetone\1-octen-3-ol\octenol\phenols\nutritional state\Glossina pallidipes\Glossina morsitans morsitans\behaviour\host-seeking behaviour\Zimbabwe\Glossina
GL: Zimbabwe
AN: 0J08404340


TI: Olfactory attractants for West African tsetse flies, Glossina spp. (Diptera: Glossinidae).
AU: Spath, J.
JN: Tropical Medicine and Parasitology
YR: 1995
VL: 46
NO: 4
PP: 253-257
LA: En
MS: 39 ref.
AA: Okologische Station der Universitat Wurzburg, Fabrikschleichach, Germany.
AB: The effect of various natural host odours on G. longipalpis, G. medicorum and G. tachinoides from catches in odour-baited biconical traps in Cote d'Ivoire analysed. Substances tested were ox urine, and the 8 components of its phenolic fraction, as well as acetone and 1-octen-3-ol, both of which are present in ox breath. Ox urine increased the catch of G. tachinoides significantly by 1.2 times. Its phenolic fraction gave increases of up to 1.6 for G. longipalpis and 1.4 for G. tachinoides (significant in both cases). Adding acetone and/or 1-octen-3-ol to the phenolic fraction increased attraction of G. longipalpis and G. tachinoides significantly by up to 1.8 and 1.3 times, respectively. Octenol on its own increased the catch of all 3 species significantly by up to 2.2 times. Acetone alone, in combination with octenol or with the phenolic fraction, reduced the catch of G. medicorum significantly to a level of 0.2. 3-Methylphenol and 4-methylphenol are those components of the phenolic fraction which showed the highest attractiveness to tsetse flies in the experiments. Several mixtures of both methylphenols and/or 1-octen-3-ol were tested as attractants for all 3 tsetse species.
DE: insect attractants\cattle\urine\odours\octenol\1-octen-3-ol\phenolic compounds\acetone\bait traps\tsetse traps\3-methylphenol\p-cresol\host-seeking behaviour\Glossina longipalpis\Glossina medicorum\Glossina tachinoides\traps\biconical traps\Glossina\attractants\Cote d'Ivoire\Glossina\traps\Glossina\attractants\Glossina
GL: Cote d'Ivoire
AN: 0J08403853


TI: Attractiveness of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) to tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) (Diptera: Glossinidae) and other biting flies.
AU: Mihok, S.\ Moloo, S. K.\ Oden'y, J. O.\ Brett, R. A.\ Rakwar, J. G.\ Munyoki, E.\ Kiilu, J.\ Kyorku, C. A.
JN: Bulletin of Entomological Research
YR: 1996
VL: 86
NO: 1
PP: 33-41
LA: En
MS: 37 ref.
AA: International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, PO Box 30772, Nairobi, Kenya.
AB: During translocations of black rhinoceros (D. bicornis) in Kenya, the authors studied the relationships between the rhinoceros and biting flies. In trapping experiments, rhinoceros waste products (urine or dung) were substituted for known attractants such as cow urine, 1-octen-3-ol or acetone. Catches of Glossina pallidipes, G. longipennis, Stomoxys spp., and Haematopota spp. were not affected by these substitutions. NG2G and Vavoua traps sited near captive animals caught similar numbers and kinds of flies as traps set without animals. Any minor attractive properties of rhinoceros odours were probably due to the presence of known attractants such as 4-cresol and 3-n-propylphenol, which were confirmed to be present through gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. In feeding trials with laboratory-reared tsetse, G. brevipalpis and G. morsitans centralis fed well on immobilized animals, whereas G. longipennis fed reluctantly. Catches of G. brevipalpis were doubled in one trapping experiment when rhinoceros urine was used as odour bait. Philoliche spp., Haematopota spp. and other Tabanidae fed on captive rhinoceroses. Many species of Stomoxyinae were associated with rhinoceroses. Of these, the most frequent association was with Rhinomusca dutoiti, a species found previously only in South Africa. R. dutoiti was found in 2 highland rhinoceros sanctuaries, Nairobi National Park and Solio Ranch Game Reserve.
DE: insect attractants\odours\urine\faeces\host-seeking behaviour\octenol\acetone\1-octen-3-ol\4-cresol\3-n-propylphenol\tse tse traps\bait traps\Stomoxys calcitrans\Haematobosca latifrons\Haematobia\Tabanus gratus\Tabanus\Rhinomusca\Stomoxys boueti\Haematobosca squalida\Prostomoxys saegerae\Prostomoxys\Haematobosca\Stomoxys niger\Stomoxys niger niger\Stomoxys niger bilineatus\Stomoxys varipes\cattle\wild animals\Tabanidae\Muscidae\feeding behaviour\Diceros bicornis\Glossina pallidipes\Stomoxys\Glossina brevipalpis\Glossina longipennis\Philoliche\Haematopota\Rhinomusca dutoiti\Kenya\Diptera\Glossina morsitans centralis\attractants\Glossina
GL: Kenya
AN: 0J08403359


TI: The responses of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes Newstead to odour attractants and traps.
AU: Mwangelwa, M. I.\ Dransfield, R. D.\ Otieno, L. H.\ Mbata, K. J.
JN: Journal of African Zoology
YR: 1995
VL: 109
NO: 1
PP: 23-30
LA: En
MS: 25 ref.
AA: International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, PO Box 30772, Nairobi, Kenya.
AB: Studies at Rusinga island in Kenya determined the responses of G. f. fuscipes to various host odours and trap types. The odours included: (a) cow urine, (b) human urine, (c) acetone, (d) 1-octen-3-ol, (e) a mixture of 8 parts 4-methylphenol, 4 parts 1-octen-3-ol, 1 part 3-n-propylphenol; (f) a mixture of 1 part 3-methylphenol, 1 part 4-methylphenol, 2 parts 1-octen-3-ol, (g) a mixture of 3 parts 3-methylphenol, 1 part 1-octen-3-ol, (h) aqueous washings from a monitor lizard (Varanus niloticus niloticus) and (i) aqueous washings from a goat. Six types of traps were compared: biconical, NG2B, NG2G, F3, pyramidal and Vavoua. The addition of odour baits to traps did not affect significantly (P >0.05) the catches of male G. f. fuscipes. Females were sometimes slightly attracted by acetone and cow urine and repelled by combinations of acetone, cow urine and phenolic fractions. The biconical trap caught consistently more tsetse than the other designs.
DE: ngu traps\biconical traps\tsetse traps\urine\1-octen-3-ol\p-cresol\3-n-propylphenol\3-methylphenol\Va ranus niloticus niloticus\goats\acetone\Varanus niloticus\Varanus\Glossina fuscipes fuscipes\traps\bait traps\Kenya\Glossina fuscipes\control\trapping\Glossina fuscipes
GL: Kenya
AN: 0J08402871


TI: Modelling movement and mortality: killing tsetse flies in the field.
AU: Williams, B.
JN: Computers and Electronics in Agriculture
YR: 1995
VL: 13
NO: 2
PP: 155-175
LA: En
MS: 28 ref.
AA: Epidemiology Research Unit, Box 4584, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa.
AB: Developments in the use of odour-baited traps offer exciting prospects for the effective control of tsetse flies and the trypanosome diseases of which they are the vectors. Work carried out at Nguruman in south-western Kenya has led to the development of cheap and simple traps which can be made and serviced by local communities. Various models have been developed which enable us to understand the factors which determine the efficiency of traps which in turn will help us to determine the density of traps needed to achieve a set level of control and to design more effective traps. 4 models are discussed here. The 1st is a model of the population dynamics of tsetse which relates the overall population loss rate to the mortality that we impose on adult flies. The 2nd is a model of movement on a large scale which makes it possible to relate the adult mortality to the movement patterns and population dynamics of the flies, and to the properties of the trap. The 3rd is a more speculative attempt to model the way in which individual flies locate traps once they are close enough to detect the odours. This should eventually make it possible to refine the parameters in the large scale movement models. The last is a model of invasions of flies into a cleared area. The development and testing of these models has relied extensively on the data collected in the field at Nguruman and in turn the models have helped us to interpret the data and to formulate new questions and experiments.
DE: movement\mortality\population dynamics\behaviour\Glossina\models\host-seeking behaviour\mathematical models
GL: Kenya
AN: 0J08400752


TI: Trials of olfactory attractants to enhance trap catches of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) in the Central African Republic.
AU: Gouteux, J. P.\ Blanc, F.\ Cuisance, D.\ D'Amico, F.\ Guinza, A. K.
JN: Veterinary Research
YR: 1995
VL: 26
NO: 4
PP: 335-340
LA: En
MS: 30 ref.
AA: ORSTOM, Departement de Mathematiques Appliquees, URA-CNRS 1204, IPRA-UPPA, Avenue del'Universite, 64000 Pau, France.
AB: Host odours increased the trap catches of G. fuscipes fuscipes in cattle breeding areas of the Central African Republic. The increase was significant with zebu urine (´1.4) and the principal reptilian host, the monitor lizard (Varanus niloticus, ´1.7). The greatest effect (´4.2) was obtained for male G. f. fuscipes with zebu urine when the densities of flies were low (<5 males per trap per day). It seems that olfactory baits in urine could improve the control of G. f. fuscipes by trapping. Reptile odour contains attractants that should be identified.
DE: insect attractants\tsetse traps\Crocodylus\Varanus\lizards\Python\cattle dung\reptiles\urine\wild animals\Crocodylus niloticus\Python sebae\rabbits\fowls\Glossina fuscipes fuscipes\Varanus niloticus\zebu\odours\attractants\Glossina fuscipes\Central African Republic\Glossina fuscipes\traps\bait traps\Glossina fuscipes\attractants\Glossina fuscipes\Glossina fuscipes\traps\Glossina fuscipes
GL: Central African Republic
AN: 0J08400242


TI: Catches of tsetse (Glossina spp.) (Diptera: Glossinidae) from traps and targets baited with large doses of natural and synthetic host odour.
AU: Hargrove, J. W.\ Holloway, M. T. P.\ Vale, G. A.\ Gough, A. J. E.\ Hall, D. R.
JN: Bulletin of Entomological Research
YR: 1995
VL: 85
NO: 2
PP: 215-227
LA: En
MS: 23 ref.
AA: Tsetse Control Branch, Department of Veterinary Services, Box CY52, Causeway, Harare, Zimbabwe.
AB: In Zimbabwe, catches of Glossina morsitans morsitans and G. pallidipes, at an odour source produced by up to 60 tonnes of cattle, fell by 90% from April to October 1987. With the time effect removed, the catches were: positively correlated with daily maximum temperature; up to twice as high with a trap as with an electrified target; and unaffected by the presence of an incomplete ring of electrified netting (11.5 m diameter) around the catching site. Catches increased as a power of bait mass in accord with the theory of odour dispersal. The power was ca. 0.32-0.44 for G. pallidipes, ca. 0.15 for post-teneral G. m. morsitans, 0.67 for Stomoxyinae and 0.48 for non-biting muscids. Earlier results from dose response studies accord with the new model. Tsetse catches were 1.7-4.5´ higher with 20 tonnes of cattle as bait than with a synthetic simulate of this dose, consisting of carbon dioxide, acetone, butanone, octenol and phenolic residues. Important olfactory components thus remain to be identified. Trap efficiency for G. m. morsitans rose from 10-20% to 40% with increasing bait mass between 0 and 5 tonnes; thereafter bait mass had no effect. Increased efficiencies were also seen in Stomoxyinae (5 to 60%) and in post-teneral G. pallidipes (45 to 70-80%). Increases in catch for bait mass >5 tonnes were due to increased attraction rather than increased efficiency. Targets were 60-66% efficient for G. pallidipes, regardless of dose; for G. m. morsitans the efficiency was ca. 54% when unbaited and 24-35% when 60 tonnes of cattle were used as bait. The probability that G. pallidipes landed on the cloth part of the target, rather than colliding with the flanking nets, increased as the square of the bait mass for both sexes-from 0.11 to 0.22 for males and from 0.06 to 0.15 for females. There was no effect of bait mass on landing probability for G. m. morsitans and no difference between the sexes; ca. 11% of the catch landed on the cloth portion of the target. Efficiency and landing behaviour were independent of climate and season.
DE: cattle\insect attractants\tsetse screens\seasonal abundance\Muscidae\Glossina morsitans morsitans\Glossina pallidipes\behaviour\attractants\traps\tsetse traps\Glossina\Zimbabwe\Glossina
GL: Zimbabwe
AN: 0J08306677


TI: Control of tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) with the aid of attractants.
CT: Vector control without chemicals: has it a future? A Symposium presented at the Sixtieth Annual Meeting of the American Mosquito Control Association, San Diego, California on April 11, 1994.
AU: Jordan, A. M.
JN: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
YR: 1995
VL: 11
NO: 2, part 2
PP: 249-255
LA: En
MS: 52 ref.
AA: "Ekpoma", Ladymead Lane, Langford, Bristol BS18 7ED, UK.
AB: A high degree of control of some Glossina spp. can be achieved by trapping. This is mainly because of their adenotrophic viviparity, and consequently very low intrinsic rates of population increase. Calculations based on basic life table data have shown that it is only necessary to catch some 1-4% of the female population per day in order to achieve effective control. This is at least 8 times less than that required for Anopheles albimanus. Much attention has been given to the size and shape of traps. In general for the Palpalis Group of species, the vertically oriented biconical trap and its derivatives are highly effective, whereas for the Morsitans Group compact or horizontally oriented shapes are more attractive. Royal blue is highly attractive, and strongest landing responses are induced either on dark surfaces or those strongly reflective in the ultraviolet. Only carbon dioxide has been identified as an attractant for the Palpalis Group, but its use in traps is impractical. In contrast, a number of attractive compounds have been identified for the Morsitans Group, but there is much variation between species and within a species at various locations. A cocktail of all known attractants, except carbon dioxide, can increase trap captures of G. pallidipes by 15-20 times. Attractive substances in host breath include acetone, and in urine, 4-methyl phenol and 3-n-propyl phenol. The new generation of traps, or so-called targets, usually insecticide-impregnated that do not retain attracted flies, can be highly effective for controlling tsetse populations. However, the problem with tsetse control is primarily one of sustainability, in particular the problem of economically containing the threat of reinvasion of areas cleared of the fly.
DE: vector control\insect attractants\reviews\odours\carbon dioxide\tsetse screens\tsetse traps\trapping\Glossina\control\attractants
AN: 0J08306019\0I06300011


TI: Responses of tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) to natural and synthetic ox odours.
AU: Torr, S. J.\ Hall, D. R.\ Smith, J. L.
JN: Bulletin of Entomological Research
YR: 1995
VL: 85
NO: 1
PP: 157-166
LA: En
MS: 22 ref.
AA: ODA Insect Pest Management Initiative, c/o Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Control Branch, Harare, Zimbabwe.
AB: In Zimbabwe, studies were made of the levels of known tsetse attractants present in natural ox odour. Typically an ox (400 kg) produced phenol (0.1 mg/h), 3-methylphenol (0.09 mg/h), 4-methylphenol (0.7 mg/h), 3-ethylphenol (0.01 mg/h), 4-ethylphenol (0.02 mg/h), 3- and 4-n-propylphenol (0.02 mg/h), 1-octen-3-ol (0.01 mg/h), carbon dioxide (140 litres/h), acetone (5 mg/h) and butanone (0.3 mg/h). Of these, only phenol, 4- and 3-methylphenol and carbon dioxide were always detected in ox odour. Studies were made of the numbers of Glossina pallidipes and G. morsitans morsitans attracted to natural ox odour and synthetic odour, the latter consisting of blends of identified attractants dispensed at the doses naturally present in ox odour. Natural ox odour caught twice (P < 0.05) as many G. pallidipes and 1.5 (P < 0.05) times as many G. m. morsitans as the synthetic blend, suggesting the presence of an unidentified attractant in ox odour. Passing ox odour through filters indicated that all attractants can be trapped on a combination of charcoal and sodalime filters but the unidentified attractant(s) may pass through a sodalime filter, and break through a charcoal filter used for >6 h. Increasing the dose of ketones in the synthetic odour from 2 to 100 mg/h doubled the catches at the source. Increases in ketone levels in hosts, induced by starvation or possibly trypanosomiasis, may increase attraction of tsetse to such animals.
DE: host-seeking behaviour\insect attractants\carbon dioxide\ketones\phenols\acetone\octenol\Glossina pallidipes\Glossina morsitans morsitans\cattle\odours\attractants\Glossina\Zimbabwe\Glossina\Glossina
GL: Zimbabwe
AN: 0J08305503\0I06300010

TI: Field studies on the effect of cattle skin secretion on the behaviour of tsetse.
AU: Warnes, M. L.
JN: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
YR: 1995
VL: 9
NO: 3
PP: 284-288
LA: En
MS: 8 ref.
AA: Tsetse Research Laboratory, ODA/University of Bristol, Langford, Bristol, UK.
AB: The effect of ox skin secretions (sebum) on the behaviour of tsetse flies, Glossina spp. (G. pallidipes, G. morsitans morsitans), was investigated in the field (in Zimbabwe) using electrified targets, some of which operated intermittently, and by direct observations of flies landing on treated and untreated cloth. As the off-period of an intermittently operating electrified target increased, the catch decreased both with and without the sebum present. Targets with sebum always caught more flies than targets without sebum, but there was no evidence to suggest that sebum increased the duration of stay on a target. Direct observations of flies on cloth targets revealed that for both species the presence of sebum reduced the duration of contact and for G. pallidipes the number of return contacts was increased. The results from direct observations were used to predict the number of repeat landings that would need to be made by flies in order to account for the catch of tsetse at intermittently electrified targets.
DE: skin\host-seeking behaviour\landing rates\insect attractants\electrocuting traps\sebum\Glossina pallidipes\Glossina morsitans morsitans\cattle\odours\attractants\Glossina\Zimbabwe\Glossina\Gloss ina
GL: Zimbabwe
AN: 0J08305502\0I06300010


TI: Different positions of dispenser bags with olfactory attractants in biconical traps (Challier-Laveissiere). Effects on catches of Glossina tachinoides and Glossina morsitans submorsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae) in Burkina Faso.
FT: Attractifs olfactifs pour la capture de Glossina tachinoides et Glossina morsitans submorsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae) au Burkina Faso. Effet de la position du sachet diffuseur dans le piege biconique Challier-Laveissiere.
AU: Amsler, S.\ Filledier, J.\ Millogo, R.
JN: Revue d'Elevage et de Medecine Veterinaire des Pays Tropicaux
YR: 1994
VL: 47
NO: 3
PP: 301-311
LA: Fr
MS: 41 ref.
AA: CIRDES (anct-. CRTA), 01 BP 454, Bobo-Dioulasso 01, Burkina Faso.
AB: Two experiments were conducted in the experimental area of Comoe (Sudano-Guinean zone) in Burkina Faso during the dry season, to evaluate the effects of the position of odour sachets in biconical traps on the capture of G. tachinoides and G. m. submorsitans. This trial compared internal and external positions of bags containing either meta-cresol alone or a mixture of meta-cresol and octenol (proportions 3:1). The position of the diffuser system did not seem to be a fundamental factor determining trap efficiency. The results varied with the season, the species and the sex of Glossina. The influence of distance was not investigated.
DE: insect control\biconical traps\insect attractants\trapping\Glossina tachinoides\Glossina morsitans submorsitans\traps\tsetse traps\Glossina\attractants\Burkina Faso\Glossina\octenol\cresols
GL: Burkina Faso
AN: 0J08304886


TI: Trap-orientated behaviour of the tsetse-fly species Glossina tachinoides (Diptera: Glossinidae).
AU: Spath, J.
JN: Entomologia Generalis
YR: 1994
VL: 19
NO: 3
PP: 209-224
LA: En
MS: 71 ref.
AA: Glogauer Weg 12, D-84130 Dingolfing, Germany.
AB: The behaviour of G. tachinoides at odour-baited and unbaited biconical traps was studied (in the Cote d'Ivoire) by visual observation and the use of electrocuting nets. The phenolic fraction of cow urine in combination with 1-octen-3-ol served as olfactory attractant. Both baited and unbaited traps attracted significantly more females than males in their vicinity; of flies attracted to unbaited traps, only 18% of males and 9.3% of females entered the trap. These percentages are termed 'trap efficiencies'; odour baiting increases them significantly, by 66% for males and 94% for females. Long-range attractiveness and efficiency of baited and unbaited traps are less for G. tachinoides compared to G. morsitans group flies observed elsewhere. As 94% of landing G. tachinoides landed on the blue cone, it is recommended for tsetse campaigns that insecticide impregnation be restricted to the blue cone of the biconical trap. Up to 74% of landing tsetse landed on the lower half of the blue cone, which forms only 12% of the whole external trap surface. 500 individuals of G. tachinoides were examined for age, nutritional status and trypanosome infection. Of those tsetse-flies approaching biconical traps, there was a significant tendency for the younger and those with lower body weight and lipid content to enter the traps. These 3 physiological groups of tsetse tend also to be more strongly attracted by odours. No significant difference could be shown between trypanosome-infected and uninfected G. tachinoides relative to trap-orientated behaviour and nutritional status.
DE: tsetse traps\odours\host-seeking behaviour\nutrition\age\Diptera\Glossinidae\insect attractants\octenol\1-octen-3-ol\Trypanosoma\disease vectors\colour\cattle\electrocuting grids\Glossina tachinoides\behaviour\trapping\traps\bait traps\biconical traps\Cote d'Ivoire
GL: Cote d'Ivoire
AN: 0J08303992


TI: Odor-induced host location in tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae).
AU: Willemse, L. P. M.\ Takken, W.
JN: Journal of Medical Entomology
YR: 1994
VL: 31
NO: 6
PP: 775-794
LA: En
MS: 170 ref., see Erratum in Journal of Medical Entomology, 32: 71-73 (1995)
AA: Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Control Branch, Department of Veterinary Services, PO Box 8283, Causeway, Harare, Zimbabwe.
AB: Four aspects of olfaction in host location by tsetse flies, Glossina spp., are discussed as follows: (1) host location and its mechanism, (2) factors affecting host location, (3) kairomones and host location, and (4) kairomones and host selection. Flight behaviour in the various phases of host location (i.e. ranging, activation, orientation and landing) in the absence and presence of olfactory cues is summarized. Movement toward an odour source is effective inter alia through optomotor-steered, upwind anemotaxis. It is still unclear how tsetse employ upwind anemotaxis to realize host location, considering the often highly variable wind direction. Olfactorily induced activation is governed by the olfactory cue perceived and threshold levels set by the internal state of the fly. The former depends on the odour source and distance from it; the latter is determined by species, sex and physiological state. Wind direction and speed, as well as vegetation and the mobility of the host, interfere with successful completion of odour-induced host location. Close-range olfactory cues (including composition and concentration gradients), visceral cues and nutritional state determine whether a fly, having reached the host animal, will land on it. Carbon dioxide is important in host location because it includes landing and long-range attraction. The role of the other kairomones (acetone, 1-octen-3-ol, 4-methyl-phenol and 3-n-propyl-phenol) is less clear. Apart from the complacency of various host species under tsetse attack, host choice by tsetse is predominantly opportunistic and primarily the result of the frequency of successful tsetse-host encounters. Nevertheless, host selection based on olfactory cues cannot be ruled out.
DE: Diptera\Glossinidae\odours\smell\kairomones\insect attractants\anemotaxis\carbon dioxide\phenols\octenol\Glossina\behaviour\host-seeking behaviour\reviews
AN: 0J08303382


TI: Prospects for using odour-baited trees to control tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae).
AU: Vale, G. A.\ Wilcox, J.\ Abson, J.
JN: Bulletin of Entomological Research
YR: 1994
VL: 84
NO: 1
PP: 123-130
LA: En
MS: 12 ref.
AA: Regional Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Control Programme, PO Box A560, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe.
AB: Field studies in Zimbabwe elucidated the responses of Glossina morsitans morsitans and G. pallidipes to natural and artificial trunks of trees (Lonchocarpus capassa, Tamarindus indica, Berchemia discolor, Kigelia pinnata, Lannea stuhlmannii, Cordyla africana, Adansonia digitata, Ficus rhodesiaca) baited with odours of acetone, 1-octen-3-ol and phenols. The numbers of tsetse electrocuted in flight near the base of the trunk increased 2-12 times when the trunk was shortened from 7.2 m to 0.9 m and its diameter was increased from 25 cm to 5 m, when the base was coloured blue or black to contrast with the upper trunk, or when the upper trunk was separated from the base by a gap of 2.7 m. A swarm flying near short trunks was more compact than near tall trunks. Electrocuting grids to catch alighting tsetse indicated that only about 20% of the attracted tsetse alighted on the base of the trunk, whether this was blue or blue/black. Since there is presently no apparent means of cost-effectively avoiding the inhibitory effects of tall trunks, the use of odour-baited trees as baits for tsetse control seems uneconomical.
DE: Diptera\Glossinidae\odours\insect attractants\1-octen-3-ol\Lonchocarpus capassa\Tamarindus indica\Berchemia discolor\Kigelia pinnata\Lannea stuhlmannii\Cordyla africana\Adansonia digitata\Ficus rhodesiaca\Glossina morsitans morsitans\Glossina pallidipes\octenol\acetone\phenols\attractants\Glossina\trees\Zimbab we\Glossina\attractants\Glossina\Glossina
GL: Zimbabwe
AN: 0J08302644


TI: Models of trap seeking by tsetse flies: anemotaxis, klinokinesis and edge detection.
AU: Williams, B.
JN: Journal of Theoretical Biology
YR: 1994
VL: 168
NO: 1
PP: 105-115
LA: En
MS: 22 ref.
AA: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK.
AB: Odour-baited traps and targets provide a powerful method for controlling tsetse flies (Glossina). Three models of the way in which tsetse flies might locate odour-baited traps or targets are presented. The first model is one of anemotaxis in which tsetse use directional information in the wind to locate the source of an odour. Anemotaxis is likely to be useful when the wind is steady and the vegetation is open. The second model is one of klinokinesis in which there is no directional information available to the fly, which is only able to detect the presence or absence of the odour. Klinokinesis might be used when the wind is very variable or the vegetation is closed. The third model is "edge detection" in which the flies are only able to detect the edge of odour plumes. This strategy might be useful if the odour is evenly dispersed. Anemotaxis is a very efficient way of locating the source of an odour even when the directional information in the wind is slight. Klinokinesis increases the probability of a fly locating the source of an odour but the best strategy is still not very efficient. Edge detection is very efficient but depends on the spatial distribution of the odour. The strategies available within each model can be regarded as "careful navigation", "point-and-shoot" or "intensive searching". Which of these is used by the flies depends critically on the amount of time for which a tsetse can remain in flight, the rate at which the flies samples the wind direction (for anemotaxis) and the turning rate (for klinokinesis). More detailed experimental information is needed in order to assess the relative merits of the various strategies in field situations.
DE: klinokinesis\orientation\flight\Diptera\Glossinidae\odours\bait traps\tsetse screens\Glossina\behaviour\host-seeking behaviour\traps\tsetse traps\control\trapping\models\mathematical models\anemotaxis\traps
AN: 0J08301297