Spotlight On...

Biological control of cockroaches.

Over 3500 species of cockroaches have been described, of which a small number have become domestic pests. The four main pest species are the larger Periplaneta americana and P. australasiae, and the smaller Blattella germanica and Blatta orientalis. Cockroaches are nocturnal insects, inhabiting sewers and kitchens where they scavenge any organic material which may serve as food. This can include human food, excreta, sputa, and, when food is scarce, the bindings of books and even paper.

Their wide-ranging feeding habits make cockroaches potential mechanical vectors of pathogens, although their precise role varies in different situations. When cockroaches feed on infected material, their legs and mouthparts become contaminated, carrying the infection into the human environment. Furthermore, many pathogens can remain fully viable after passage through the cockroach gut, and are, therefore, dispersed when the cockroaches defecate. In some situations, cockroaches may even be more important than Musca domestica, the housefly, as mechanical vectors of human disease.

The main forms of biological control of cockroaches that have been investigated are parasitoids, entomogenous fungi, and entomophilic nematodes. Some research has also been done on entomopathogenic protozoa, viruses, and predators of cockroaches.

Wasps of the families Eulophidae, Eupelmidae, Encyrtidae and Evaniidae are the commonest parasitoids of cockroach oothecae, or egg-cases, identified as potential control agents. The behaviour of these wasps is variable and ranges from the development of one adult wasp per egg-case to many adults per egg-case, and from attacking the egg-cases of several cockroach species to being host specific. The eupelmid Anatatus tenuipes and the encyrtid Comperia merceti attack only the egg-cases of the brown-banded cockroach, Supella longipalpa, while females of the eulophid Aprostocetus hagenowii (= Tetrastichus hagenowii) are known to attack several Periplaneta spp. and Blatta orientalis.

Metarhizium anisopliae is the main entomogenous fungus that has been examined for its potential to control cockroaches. Beauveria bassiana has also been investigated, but M. anisopliae is the basis of the Bio-Path Cockroach Control chamber. The chamber is baited, and once an individual becomes infected, it carries the fungus back to the cockroaches' habourage where others become contaminated.

Nematodes that have been investigated as biological control agents of cockroaches are mainly from the genus Steinernema, including Steinernema carpocapsae and S. scapterisci. The house centipede Scutigera coleoptrata and the cellar spider Pholcus phalangioides are two predators that have been observed feeding on early instar nymphs of cockroaches, although many other predators have been used in the investigation of cockroach escape responses. Entomopathogenic protozoa do not appear to show great promise as biological control agents of cockroaches, although the apicomplexan Gregarina blattarum has been shown to infect Blattella germanica in the laboratory.

One of the complicating aspects of the biological control of cockroaches is that they are often being controlled in domestic environments such as houses, restaurants, hotels or hospitals. The use of predators, parasites or other biological control strategies against cockroaches in these situations must take into account the attitudes of the people living or working there towards the presence of additional organisms indoors. The release of hymenopterous parasites of cockroach egg-cases such as Prosevania punctata against Blatta orientalis and P. americana, may not be acceptable if the wasps are as unwelcome as the cockroaches. Similar skepticism has occurred with the use of nematodes and fungi to control cockroaches indoors. The beneficial aspects of reducing or eliminating the use of traditional insecticides indoors may also be considered less important than the intentional introduction of another organism to the living environment.

A selection of abstracts from Review of Medical and Veterinary Entomology relating to the biological control of cockroaches is given below.

Details of the following books are available at the Online Bookshop:

Related items included in PEST CABWeb®:

CABI Bioscience

CABI Bioscience undertakes research and training in biological pest management, as well as biodiversity, biosystematics and the environment. It has a specific research programme on biopesticides including the LUBILOSA programme with its trademarked anti-locust product, Green Muscle.


TI: A new entomopoxvirus from a cockroach: light and electron microscopy.
AU: Radek, R.\ Fabel, P.
JN: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
YR: 2000
VL: 75
NO: 1
PP: 19-27
LA: En
MS: 29 ref.
AA: Institute of Zoology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld
230, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
AB: The morphology and fine structure of a virion found in Blattella germanica and stages of its morphogenesis are described. The ellipsoid occlusion bodies varied in size from 8 X 5 to 19 X 12 µm. Favoured sites for infection were the tracheal cells along the gut and along the Malpighian tubules and hypodermis. This virus was considered to have characteristics of entomopoxvirus genera A and B and it is given a provisional name of B. germanica entomopoxvirus.
DE: Entomopoxvirus; morphology; ultrastructure; Blattella germanica; insect; viruses; pathogens; entomopathogens; morphogenesis; Blattella germanica entomopoxvirus


TI: Genome organization and mRNA structure of Periplaneta fuliginosa densovirus imply alternative splicing involvement in viral gene expression.
AU: Yamagishi-J; Hu-Y; Zheng-J; Bando-H
JN: Archives-of-Virology
YR: 1999
VL: 144
NO: 11
PP: 2111-2124
LA: En
MS: 34 ref.
AA: Division of Applied Bioscience, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan.
AB: The complete nucleotide sequence of an infectious clone of the cockroach small spherical virus genome was determined. Analysis of the genome organization and the predicted viral protein sequences showed clearly that this virus should be classified as a new member of the subfamily Densovirinae, genus Densovirus, and should be designated as PfDNV. However, the data revealed some differences between the gene expression strategies used by PfDNV and other DNVs. An internal promoter, in addition to the promoter (p3) at the genome terminus, was observed at map unit 18 (p18), implying transcriptional regulation of generation of the nonstructural proteins of PfDNV. Furthermore, the structural analysis of cDNAs complementary to mRNAs from the region coding for structural proteins suggested alternative splicing and polyadenylation as means for generation of the structural proteins of PfDNV. The EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ accession number for the new nucleotide sequence is AB028936.
DE: gene-expression; messenger-RNA; genome-analysis; molecular-genetics; nucleotide-sequences; amino-acid-sequences; viral-structural-proteins; viral-proteins; Densovirus-; Periplaneta-fuliginosa; insect-viruses; Blattaria; cockroach-small-spherical-virus; Parvoviridae; viruses; insect-viruses; entomopathogens; pathogens; natural-enemies; animal-viruses; Periplaneta; Blattidae; Blattaria; Dictyoptera; insects; arthropods; invertebrates; animals; East-Asia; Asia; Developing-Countries
GL: China


TI: Virulence of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) strain ESC-1 to the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) and its compatibility with insecticides.
AU: Pachamuthu-P; Kamble-ST; Yuen-GY
JN: Journal-of-Economic-Entomology
YR: 1999
VL: 92
NO: 2
PP: 340-346
LA: En
MS: 31 ref.
AA: Department of Entomology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0816, USA.
AB: Virulence of M. anisopliae Sorokin strain ESC-1 against Blattella germanica was determined using 5 concentrations ranging from 8 X 107 to 2 X 109 spores per ml. The calculated LD50 value was 4.18 by 108 spores per ml (4.18 X 105 spores per cockroach). In vitro study was conducted to determine the compatibility of M. anisopliae strain ESC-1 with chlorpyrifos, propetamphos, and cyfluthrin. Insecticides did not affect conidial germination but did adversely affect the growth and sporulation of M. anisopliae strain ESC-1. The growth of M. anisopliae colonies on media amended only with 50 and 500 ppm of chlorpyrifos and 500 ppm of propetamphos treatments at 3, 6 and 9 days was significantly inhibited compared with the control. Similarly, sporulation was significantly reduced in treated colonies exhibiting partial colony growth. The colonies cultured on SDAY media amended with 50 ppm of chlorpyrifos had significantly reduced sporulation compared with the control and no sporulation was observed in colonies cultured on media amended with 500 ppm of chlorpyrifos and propetamphos.
DE: chlorpyrifos-; cyfluthrin-; propetamphos-; sporulation-; virulence-; entomogenous-fungi; organophosphorus-insecticides; pyrethroid-insecticides; Metarhizium-anisopliae; Blattella-germanica; Metarhizium; Deuteromycotina; Eumycota; fungi; Blattella; Blattellidae; Blattaria; Dictyoptera; insects; arthropods; invertebrates; animals; Biological-Control; Control-by-Chemicals-and-Drugs; Parasites,-Vectors,-Pathogens-and-Biogenic-Diseases-of-Animals


TI: Laboratory evaluation of the pathogenicity of three isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin on the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana).
AU: Mohan-CM; Lakshmi-KA; Devi-KU
JN: Biocontrol-Science-and-Technology
YR: 1999
VL: 9
NO: 1
PP: 29-33
LA: En
MS: 9 ref.
AA: Department of Botany, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, AP, India.
AB: Mycopesticides can be ideal for the biocontrol of cockroaches because the habitat of these insects promotes initial fungal infection and its subsequent spread. The pathogenicity of 3 isolates of B. bassiana to P. americana was tested. The insects were treated in 3 different ways, by direct contact with spore mass, a spore-wheat flour mixture, and a spray of an aqueous spore suspension. A mortality of 100% in the 1st treatment, 67-100% in the 2nd treatment and 17-75% in the 3rd treatment was observed. These results suggested that B. bassiana spore formulations in food baits can be developed for cockroaches.
DE: entomogenous-fungi; pathogenicity-; baits-; formulations-; hosts-; Beauveria-bassiana; Periplaneta-americana; Beauveria; Deuteromycotina; Eumycota; fungi; Periplaneta; Blattidae; Blattaria; Dictyoptera; insects; arthropods; invertebrates; animals; Public-Health-and-Nuisance-Pests; Parasites,-Vectors,-Pathogens-and-Biogenic-Diseases-of-Animals; Biological-Control


TI: Venom of a parasitoid wasp induces prolonged grooming in the cockroach.
AU: Weisel-Eichler-A; Haspel-G; Libersat-F
JN: Journal-of-Experimental-Biology
YR: 1999
VL: 202
NO: 8
PP: 957-964
LA: En
MS: 42 ref.
AA: Department of Life Sciences and Zlotowski Center for Neuroscience, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel.
AB: Ampulex compressa hunts Periplaneta americana, stinging them 1st in the thorax and then in the head, the sting penetrating towards the suboesophageal ganglion. After being stung, the cockroach grooms almost continuously for ÷30 min, performing all the normal components of grooming behaviour. This excessive grooming is only seen after the head sting and cannot be attributed to stress, to contamination of the body surface or to systemic or peripheral effects. It is suggested that the venom is activating a neural network for grooming. It is hypothesised that the venom induces prolonged grooming by stimulating dopamine receptors in the cockroach, for the following reasons. (1) Reserpine, which causes massive release of monoamines, induces excessive grooming. (2) Dopamine injected into the haemocoel also induces excessive grooming and is significantly more effective than octopamine or serotonin. In addition, the dopamine agonist SKF 82958 induces excessive grooming when injected directly into the suboesophageal ganglion. (3) Injection of the dopamine antagonist flupenthixol greatly reduces venom-induced grooming. (4) Dopamine, or a dopamine-like substance, is present in the venom.
DE: grooming-; parasitoids-; dopamine-; receptors-; central-nervous-system; venoms-; behaviour-; neural-networks; natural-enemies; Periplaneta-americana; Sphecidae-; Ampulex-compressa; Ampulex; toxinology; Periplaneta; Blattidae; Blattaria; Dictyoptera; insects; arthropods; invertebrates; animals; Hymenoptera; Sphecidae; Parasites,-Vectors,-Pathogens-and-Biogenic-Diseases-of-Animals; Animal-Toxicology,-Poisoning-and-Pharmacology; Animal-Behaviour


TI: Entomopathogenic fungi for control of German cockroach (Blattella germanica) and other synanthropic cockroaches.
CT: Insect pathogens and insect parasitic nematodes. Proceedings of the 6th European Meeting "Microbial Control of Pests in Sustainable Agriculture", Copenhagen, Denmark, 10-15 August 1997.
AU: Steenberg-T; Vagn-Jensen-KM; Jensen-KMV; Smits-PH
JN: Bulletin-OILB-SROP
YR: 1998
VL: 21
NO: 4
PP: 145-150
LA: En
MS: 4 ref.
AA: Danish Pest Infestation Laboratory, Skovbrynet 14, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark.
AB: The fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (n = 1), the bacterium Serratia marcescens (n = 3) and a mermithid nematode (n = 1) were found to infect low proportions of live B. germanica (n = 1024) collected from 10 locations, including a hospital, restaurant and pet shop [in Denmark]. Strains belonging to 6 species of hyphomycetes (Beauveria bassiana, B. brongniartii, Metarhizium anisopliae, P. fumosoroseus, P. farinosus and Verticillium lecanii) were screened for infectivity against 4 species of synanthropic cockroaches (Blattella germanica, Blatta orientalis, Periplaneta americana and Supella longipalpa) in assays with high spores concentrations. All fungal strains were infective, but B. orientalis was markedly less susceptible compared to the other species. In preliminary bioassays, M. anisopliae (isolated from a beetle) was more virulent to nymphal, female and male Blattella germanica compared to Paecilomyces fumosoroseus from the homologous host. For both fungal species, female B. germanica appeared more susceptible to infection than males. Conidial production from female cadavers was significantly higher for P. fumosoroseus, which produced 10 times more conidia per cadaver compared to M. anisopliae.
DE: hosts-; infectivity-; natural-enemies; entomophilic-nematodes; entomopathogenic-bacteria; susceptibility-; virulence-; hospitals-; restaurants-; buildings-; zoological-gardens; entomogenous-fungi; pathogenicity; Blattella-germanica; Blatta-orientalis; Periplaneta-americana; Supella-longipalpa; Blattaria-; Serratia-marcescens; Mermithidae-; Beauveria-bassiana; Beauveria-brongniartii; Metarhizium-anisopliae; Paecilomyces-fumosoroseus; Paecilomyces-farinosus; Verticillium-lecanii; Paecilomyces-; Beauveria; pet-shops; bakeries; Blattella; Blattellidae; Blattaria; Dictyoptera; insects; arthropods; invertebrates; animals; Blatta; Blattidae; Periplaneta; Supella; Serratia; Enterobacteriaceae; Gracilicutes; bacteria; prokaryotes; Nematoda; Beauveria; Deuteromycotina; Eumycota; fungi; Metarhizium; Paecilomyces; Verticillium; Scandinavia; Northern-Europe; Europe; Developed-Countries; European-Union-Countries; OECD-Countries
GE: Denmark


TI: Body size and fitness in the hunting wasp Ampulex compressa.
AU: Heitmans-WRB
CT: Proceedings of the 9th Meeting of Experimental and Applied Entomologists in the Netherlands, Leiden, 19 December 1997.
JN:Proceedings-of-the-Section-Experimental-and-Applied-Entomology-of-the-Netherlands-Entomological-Society.
YR: 1998
VL: 9
PP: 59-65
LA: En
MS: 23 ref.
AA: Institute of Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands.
AB: Three fitness elements associated with the life history of the Periplaneta cockroach hunting wasp A. compressa were studied in relation to female body size. The importance of body size is best demonstrated in the numbers of mature eggs. The overall realized fecundity or lifetime reproductive success and longevity do hardly increase with body size.
DE: fitness-; eggs-; fecundity-; longevity-; parasitoids-; size-; life-history; reproduction-; parasitism-; Periplaneta-; Sphecidae-; Ampulex-compressa; Ampulex; Blattidae; Blattaria; Dictyoptera; insects; arthropods; invertebrates; animals; Hymenoptera; Sphecidae; Public-Health-and-Nuisance-Pests; Parasites,-Vectors,-Pathogens-and-Biogenic-Diseases-of-Animals; Animal-Reproduction-and-Development; Control-by-Chemicals-and-Drugs


TI: Evaluation of effect of Metarhizium anisopliae on reduction of numbers of Blattella germanica L.
AU: Zukowski-K; Bajan-C; Popowska-Nowak-E
JN: Roczniki-Panstwowego-Zakladu-Higieny
YR: 1998
VL: 49
NO: 1
PP: 67-72
LA: En
LS: Pl
MS: 10 ref.
AA: National Institute of Hygiene, Department of Control of Biological Contamination, 00-791 Warszawa, ul. Chocimska 24, Poland.
AB: Estimates were given of the effectiveness of 5 M. anisopliae strains originating from different regions of Poland in the control of B. germanica. The strains investigated, which were added to the cockroaches' food at concentrations of 24 X 106-690 X 106 spores 'in food', caused high mortality among experimental insects. Especially effective in reducing numbers of B. germanica were the strains Browsk and Pruszyn, which even at a low density of spores caused high mortality in test insects.
DE: entomogenous-fungi; strains-; mortality-; pathogenicity-; Metarhizium-anisopliae; Blattella-germanica; Metarhizium; Deuteromycotina; Eumycota; fungi; Blattella; Blattellidae; Blattaria; Dictyoptera; insects; arthropods; invertebrates; animals; Central-Europe; Europe; Developed-Countries; Biological-Control; Parasites,-Vectors,-Pathogens-and-Biogenic-Diseases-of-Animals
GL: Poland


TI: Seasonal incidence and biological control potential of Aprostocetus hagenowii (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in treehole microhabitats.
AU: Suiter-DR; Patterson-RS; Koehler-PG
JN: Environmental-Entomology.
YR: 1998
VL: 27
NO: 2
PP: 434-442
LA: En
MS: 23 ref.
AA: Department of Entomology & Nematology, University of Florida, Building 970, Hull Rd., PO Box 110620, Gainesville, FL 32611-0620, USA.
AB: The development of A. hagenowii in irradiated 2-week-old Periplaneta americana oothecae yielded a significantly higher percentage of female-biased clutches than freeze-killed oothecae, but per clutch the number of females and males, sex ratio and developmental time were not significantly different. In parasitoid development studies, ootheca age and the factor clutch significantly affected the number of female and male parasitoids per clutch: younger oothecae yielded more parasitoids than older oothecae. Weekly for 30 weeks (23 June 1993-19 January 1994), parasitoids were released in P. americana, P. australasiae and P. fuliginosa-infested treeholes [in Florida, USA]. Parasitism of sentinel oothecae at release sites was higher than at control sites each week after the release programme was initiated. From April to November, parasitism of sentinel oothecae in control treeholes was 10-40%, but peaked at 46% the week of 7 July. Weekly winter (December-March) sentinel ootheca parasitism was <10%. Parasitism of sentinel oothecae in release treeholes remained higher for 10 of the 11 weeks after parasitoid releases were terminated, indicating that naturally occurring oothecae, parasitized during the release programme, served as inoculum for subsequent generations of parasitoids.
DE: biological-control; irradiation-; tree-holes; parasitoids-; oothecae-; biological-development; life-cycle; parasitism; Aprostocetus-hagenowii; Periplaneta-americana; Periplaneta-australasiae; Periplaneta-fuliginosa; Periplaneta; Aprostocetus; Eulophidae; Hymenoptera; insects; arthropods; invertebrates; animals; Periplaneta; Blattidae; Blattaria; Dictyoptera; Developed-Countries; North-America; America; OECD-Countries; Southeastern-States-of-USA; Southern-States-of-USA; USA; Gulf-States-of-USA; South-Atlantic-States-of-USA; Parasites,-Vectors,-Pathogens-and-Biogenic-Diseases-of-Animals; Public-Health-and-Nuisance-Pests; Animal-Reproduction-and-Development
GL: USA; Florida


TI: Niche overlap among three species of pinworm parasitic in the hindgut of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana.
AU: Connor-S; Adamson-M
JN: Journal-of-Parasitology.
YR: 1998
VL: 84
NO: 2
PP: 245-247
LA: En
MS: 8 ref.
AA: Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada.
AB: Individual P. americana, often harbour 3 species of nematodes, Thelastoma bulhoesi, Leidynema appendiculatum, and Hammerschmidtiella diesingi, simultaneously. Evidence of trophic niche segregation based on differences in size preference among the 3 species was sought. Fluorescent beads of 1, 3, 6 and 10 æm diameter were mixed in agar and fed to individual hosts. Adult female worms of each species were removed from hosts and the number of each size of bead in each worm was assessed. Horn's Ro and Hurlbert's L indices of niche overlap were calculated for infracommunities containing at least 1 of each species. Hurlbert's index extends the information given by Horn's index to include the effects of proportional availability of each resource. Both indices indicated a lack of trophic segregation based on particle size among the 3 species. Species did, however, differ in consumption rate: L. appendiculatum ate more than T. bulhoesi, which ate more than H. diesingi.
DE: entomophilic-nematodes; hosts-; natural-enemies; nematology; Periplaneta-americana; Hammerschmidtiella-diesingi; Nematoda-; insects; Thelastoma-bulhoesi; Leidynema-appendiculatum; Oxyurida; Periplaneta; Blattidae; Blattaria; Dictyoptera; insects; arthropods; invertebrates; animals; Hammerschmidtiella; Thelastomatidae; Nematoda; Thelastoma; Leidynema; Parasites,-Vectors,-Pathogens-and-Biogenic-Diseases-of-Animals


TI: Targeted delivery of pesticides from Matricap compositions.
AU: Levy-R; Nichols-MA; Opp-WR; Goss-GR (ed.); Hopkinson-MJ (ed.); Collins-HM
JN: Pesticide-formulations-and-application-systems:-17th-volume.
YR: 1997
PP: 63-93
LA: En
MS: 11 ref.
AA: Lee County Mosquito Control District, PO Box 60005, Ft. Myers, FL 33906, USA.
AB: A novel encapsulation system was developed for controlled delivery of bioactive agents from solid matrices. The efficacy of several encapsulation techniques and polymer or nonpolymer coating/coating-complex formulations in regulating the controlled-delivery duration and profile of the biopesticides Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis or B. sphaericus and the insect growth regulators methoprene or pyriproxyfen from solid carrier matrices such as Biodac or corn cob granules was evaluated against larvae of Aedes taeniorhynchus, Anopheles albimanus and Culex quinquefasciatus or nymphs of Blattella germanica. Results of a series of bioassays against mosquito larvae in a variety of water qualities suggested that the solid controlled-delivery compositions could be used to direct the biopesticides or growth regulators to specific surface and/or subsurface areas of a water column to target the feeding zones and/or orientation patterns of each type of mosquito for prolonged periods. Cockroach bioassays indicated that a bait-growth regulator formulation could be encapsulated within several types of polymer base compositions and slow-released for extended periods.
DE: methoprene-; pyriproxyfen-; insect-growth-regulators; larvae-; nymphs-; aquatic-insects; formulations-; polymers-; entomopathogenic-bacteria; controlled-release; Bacillus-thuringiensis-subsp.-israelensis; Bacillus-sphaericus; Aedes-taeniorhynchus; Anopheles-albimanus; Culex-quinquefasciatus; Blattella-germanica; Bacillus-thuringiensis; Bacillus; Bacillaceae; Firmicutes; bacteria; prokaryotes; Aedes; Culicidae; Diptera; insects; arthropods; invertebrates; animals; Anopheles; Culex; Blattella; Blattellidae; Blattaria; Dictyoptera; Parasites,-Vectors,-Pathogens-and-Biogenic-Diseases-of-Humans; Public-Health-and-Nuisance-Pests; Biological-Control; Control-by-Chemicals-and-Drugs


TI: Biological suppression of synanthropic cockroaches.
CT: Program symposium, 1996 Entomological Society of America annual meeting, Louisville, Kentucky. Biorational approaches to urban pest management.
AU: Suiter-DR; Hinkle-NC (ed.); Oi-FM
JN: Journal-of-Agricultural-Entomology.
YR: 1997
VL: 14
NO: 3
PP: 259-270
LA: En
MS: 40 ref.
AA: Center for Urban & Industrial Pest Management, Department of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1158, USA.
AB: A review of published research on the biological control of synanthropic cockroaches revealed a wealth of laboratory-generated information on the biology, ecology and efficacy of several cockroach natural enemies; however, few field studies were conducted to evaluate these enemies. Pathogens, particularly fungi, appear to be the most promising group for the biological control of Blattella germanica. The most promising natural enemies for the biological control of peridomestic cockroaches appear to be the oothecal parasitoids and some pathogens. Searches abroad for classical biological control agents of cockroaches are highly recommended. Due to the harshness, ecological instability and physical impediments associated with the indoor and outdoor environments where cockroaches are found, releases of biological control agents will necessarily be periodic and inundative. Conservation of existing natural biological controls can be achieved by switching from residual sprays to baits whenever possible. A multitude of questions regarding issues associated with the biological control of cockroaches are presented for discussion.
DE: biological-control; urban-areas; dwellings-; reviews-; parasitoids-; entomopathogens-; predators-; entomogenous-fungi; natural-enemies; entomophilic-nematodes; Blattaria-; Blattellidae-; Blattidae-; Blattella-germanica; Biorational-approaches-to-urban-pest-management; Dictyoptera; insects; arthropods; invertebrates; animals; Blattella; Public-Health-and-Nuisance-Pests; Biological-Control; Parasites,-Vectors,-Pathogens-and-Biogenic-Diseases-of-Animals


TI: The presence of cockroaches in dwellings in La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico.
FT: Presencia de cucarachas en viviendas de La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico.
AU: Palacios-C; Jimenez-M
JN: Southwestern-Entomologist.
YR: 1997
VL: 22
NO: 2
PP: 243-246
LA: Es
MS: 13 ref.
AA: Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste A.C., Apdo. Postal 128, La Paz, B.C.S., Mexico 23000, Mexico.
AB: Manual collections of cockroaches were made monthly in January-November 1993 inside and outside 30 dwellings in the city of La Paz, Mexico. A total of 1267 cockroaches belonging to 8 genera and 9 species was collected: Periplaneta americana, Neostylopyga rhombifolia, Arenivaga spp. (2 unidentified species), Blattella germanica, Supella longipalpa, Symploce pallens, Nauphoeta cinerea and Pycnoscelus surinamensis. Among the most abundant species were Periplaneta americana, S. pallens, Supella longipalpa and B. germanica. Natural enemies of P. americana included ants (Pogonomyrmex), spiders (Heteropoda venatoria, Latrodectus mactans), lizards (Urosaurus nigricaudus, Uta stanburiana), mice (Mus musculus) and cats. 9 oothecae of Periplaneta americana and 5 of N. rhombifolia were parasitised by Prosevania sp. (Evaniidae) and Eulophidae.
DE: urban-areas; population-ecology; seasonal-abundance; predators-; parasitoids-; surveys-; dwellings-; natural-enemies; Heteropoda-; Evaniidae-; Eulophidae-; lizards-; Periplaneta-americana; Blattella-germanica; Supella-longipalpa; Nauphoeta-cinerea; Pycnoscelus-surinamensis; Pogonomyrmex-; Latrodectus-mactans; Mus-musculus; Prosevania-; cats; Symploce; Neostylopyga; Uta; Urosaurus; Neostylopyga-rhombifolia; Arenivaga; Symploce-pallens; Heteropoda-venatoria; Urosaurus-nigricaudus; Uta-stanburiana; Heteropodidae; Araneae; Arachnida; arthropods; invertebrates; animals; Hymenoptera; insects; Sauria; reptiles; vertebrates; Chordata; Periplaneta; Blattidae; Blattaria; Dictyoptera; Blattella; Blattellidae; Supella; Nauphoeta; Oxyhaloidae; Pycnoscelus; Formicidae; Latrodectus; Theridiidae; Mus; Murinae; Muridae; rodents; mammals; Evaniidae; Felis; Felidae; Fissipeda; carnivores; Developing-Countries; Latin-America; North-America; America; Threshold-Countries; Polyphagidae; Heteropoda; Public-Health-and-Nuisance-Pests; Animal-Behaviour; Parasites,-Vectors,-Pathogens-and-Biogenic-Diseases-of-Animals; Biological-Control
GL: Mexico


TI: Toxicity of imidacloprid in the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae), and the synergism between imidacloprid and Metarhizium anisopliae (imperfect fungi: Hyphomycetes).
AU: Kaakeh-W; Reid-BL; Bohnert-TJ; Bennett-GW
JN: Journal-of-Economic-Entomology.
YR: 1997
VL: 90
NO: 2
PP: 473-482
LA: En
MS: 33 ref.
AA: Center for Urban and Industrial Pest Management, Department of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1158, USA.
AB: Blattella germanica orally exposed to solid imidacloprid baits exhibited toxic symptoms rapidly (within 30 min). However, cockroaches recovered from this toxicity. The percentage of knockdown was positively correlated and the rate of recovery was negatively correlated with concentration. In the liquid bait tests, imidacloprid produced rapid moribundity (within minutes) in all exposed cockroaches, but this moribundity was transient. Topically applied imidacloprid also produced rapid but transient moribundity in both the laboratory-susceptible (JWax-S) and the field-collected resistant (Muncie'86) strains. In the topical application bioassay, recovery time was dependent on cockroach strain and presence of piperonyl butoxide (PBO). Resistant cockroaches recovered faster than susceptible cockroaches: cockroaches pretreated with PBO recovered faster than those not pretreated. The JWax and Lafayette (field-collected) strains were killed significantly faster with the entomopathogenic fungus, M. anisopliae alone, or Metarhizium + solid imidacloprid bait than imidacloprid bait alone in both the choice and no-choice bioassays. Combinations of direct contact to the conidia of Metarhizium and feeding on imidacloprid bait indicated synergy when compared with the activity of the individual components. The authors found no differences in mortality when the JWax cockroaches fed on either 500 or 1000 ppm imidacloprid baits. The presence of alternate food showed the lethal time for imidacloprid against the JWax and Lafayette strains. Both strains were killed significantly faster when cockroaches fed on imidacloprid after a topical application of spore suspensions of Metarhizium than when insects fed on imidacloprid bait alone, indicating possible synergistic interaction (i.e. greater than expected mortality) between imidacloprid bait and Metarhizium. The mortality of cockroaches inoculated topically with spore suspensions of Metarhizium increased significantly with an increase in the number of fungal spores. No significant differences in daily cockroach mortality were detected among imidacloprid concentrations for each Metarhizium dose. Imidacloprid bait alone has a limited potential for use in controlling cockroaches, but it may have a potential if used in combination with a fungal pathogen such as Metarhizium.
DE: synergism-; integrated-control; chemical-control; biological-control; insecticides-; baits-; imidacloprid-; toxicity-; pathogenicity-; entomogenous-fungi; pesticide-synergists; Blattella-germanica; Metarhizium-anisopliae; Blattella; Blattellidae; Blattaria; Dictyoptera; insects; arthropods; invertebrates; animals; Metarhizium; Deuteromycotina; Eumycota; fungi; Developed-Countries; North-America; America; OECD-Countries; East-North-Central-States-of-USA; North-Central-States-of-USA; USA; Corn-Belt-States-of-USA; Public-Health-and-Nuisance-Pests; Animal-Toxicology,-Poisoning-and-Pharmacology; Control-by-Chemicals-and-Drugs; Parasites,-Vectors,-Pathogens-and-Biogenic-Diseases-of-Animals
GL: USA; Indiana


TI: Susceptibility of the cockroach Periplaneta americana to Steinernema carpocapsae: histopathological changes in the cockroach midgut.
AU: Mathur-N; Khera-S; Gandhi-S; Gupta-R
JN: Indian-Journal-of-Nematology
YR: 1996, publ. 1997
VL: 26
NO: 2
PP: 183-188
LA: En
MS: 10 ref.
AA: Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh - 160 014, India.
AB: Laboratory tests revealed that at dosage levels of 5000 infective juveniles/insect, 70 and 50% mortality occurred in males and females of P. americana, respectively. LD 50 values were 3467.78 and 4986.05, respectively. Histopathological changes due to movement and penetration of nematode larvae in the host midgut showed an increase in vacuolization and disintegration of columnar cells. Destruction of cytoplasm followed by degeneration of nuclei was also noticed.
DE: insect-pests; entomophilic-nematodes; hosts-; pathogens-; natural-enemies; nematology; Periplaneta-americana; Steinernema-carpocapsae; insects; Rhabditida; Periplaneta; Blattidae; Blattaria; Dictyoptera; insects; arthropods; invertebrates; animals; Steinernema; Steinernematidae; Nematoda; Pests,-Pathogens-and-Biogenic-Diseases-of-Plants; Parasites,-Vectors,-Pathogens-and-Biogenic-Diseases-of-Animals


TI: Horizontal transmission of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (imperfect fungi: Hyphomycetes) and hydramethylnon among German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).
AU: Kaakeh-W; Reid-BL; Bennett-GW
JN: Journal-of-Entomological-Science.
YR: 1996
VL: 31
NO: 4
PP: 378-390
LA: En
MS: 36 ref.
AA: Center for Urban and Industrial Pest Management, Department of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1158, USA.
AB: Horizontal transmission of M. anisopliae and hydramethylnon toxicant among individuals of Blattella germanica was evaluated in the laboratory. Transmission of hydramethylnon occurred through the faeces. Contaminated faeces were toxic to other cockroaches when mixed with standard laboratory diet at different ratios. Lethal time (LT50) of the nymphs increased as the proportion of contaminated faeces in the healthy laboratory diet was decreased. When cockroaches were fed a diet consisting of hydramethylnon-contaminated faeces and a laboratory diet at ratios of 1:0, 1:1 and 1:5, the mortality reached 100% at days 9, 12 and 17, respectively. The mortality was reduced to ÷80% at a ratio of 1:10. Fifth-instar nymphs exposed to the conidia of M. anisopliae or hydramethylnon toxicant for 6, 12, 24 or 48 h transferred the fungal conidia or the toxicant to healthy nymphs. Rate of mortality increased significantly by increasing the ratio of infected to unexposed cockroaches (i.e. 1:1 > 1:10), and by increasing the exposure time for the infected cockroaches (48 h vs. 6 h) to both M. anisopliae and hydramethylnon. Cockroaches killed by M. anisopliae or hydramethylnon before being presented to healthy cockroaches were less effective in spreading the fungus or toxicant than were live infected cockroaches. When live infected nymphs were mixed with healthy cockroaches, M. anisopliae initially killed cockroaches slightly faster (LT50 [95% CL] = 10.1 [9.2-11.0] days) than hydramethylnon (LT50 = 12.5 [11.4-13.7] days). However, cumulative mortality reached 100% at day 26 for both M. anisopliae and hydramethylnon treatments. After mixing healthy nymphs with dead infected cockroaches, the rate of mortality was slower for M. anisopliae (LT50 = 20 [19.1-20.9] days) and hydramethylnon (LT50 = 14 [13.4-14.7] days) than those recorded in the previous test (that is, mixing live-infected nymphs with healthy cockroaches). However, the cumulative mortality 28 days after exposure to M. anisopliae and hydramethylnon reached 77 and 67%, respectively. Fungal growth was observed on all body parts of dead infected nymphs within 14-16 days of exposure to fungus. Dead infected nymphs were not cannibalized, suggesting avoidance behaviour by healthy nymphs. Consequently, the fungal conidia were not spread as effectively by dead nymphs as with live infected nymphs.
DE: entomogenous-fungi; insect-growth-regulators; fungal-insecticides; toxicity-; chemical-control; hydramethylnon-; horizontal-transmission; insecticides-; biological-control; pathogens-; hosts; Blattella-germanica; Metarhizium-anisopliae; Blattella; Blattellidae; Blattaria; Dictyoptera; insects; arthropods; invertebrates; animals; Metarhizium; Deuteromycotina; Eumycota; fungi; Parasites,-Vectors,-Pathogens-and-Biogenic-Diseases-of-Animals; Public-Health-and-Nuisance-Pests; Control-by-Chemicals-and-Drugs


TI: Host specificity of Gregarina blattarum von Siebold, 1839 (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida) among five species of domiciliary cockroaches.
AU: Clopton-RE; Gold-RE
JN: Journal-of-Invertebrate-Pathology.
YR: 1996
VL: 67
NO: 3
PP: 219-223
LA: En
MS: 33 ref.
AA: Center for Urban Entomology, Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2475, USA.
AB: Of 3rd- and 4th-instars of Blattella germanica, Supella longipalpa, Blatta orientalis, Periplaneta americana and P. fuliginosa, only those of Blattella germanica became infected on eating dog kibble contaminated with oocysts of G. blattarum. In B. germanica, infections were seen in all experimental replications, while none were seen with the other species. It was shown using in vitro excystation assays involving extracts of host gut homogenates that G. blattarum sporozoites could successfully excyst and commence their life cycles in all the 5 cockroach species, while this did not happen in neutral buffered saline controls. It is suggested that rather than G. blattarum being a single species which parasitizes a number of cockroach hosts, the species is made up of a complex of cryptic species marked by narrow host utilization.
DE: susceptibility-; experimental-infection; infection-; development-; host-specificity; entomopathogenic-protozoa; hosts-; pathogens-; parasites; Gregarina-; Blattella-germanica; Supella-longipalpa; Blatta-orientalis; Periplaneta-americana; Periplaneta-fuliginosa; protozoa; Gregarina-blattarum; Gregarinidae; Eugregarinorida; Apicomplexa; invertebrates; animals; Blattella; Blattellidae; Blattaria; Dictyoptera; insects; arthropods; Supella; Blatta; Blattidae; Periplaneta; Gregarina; Parasites,-Vectors,-Pathogens-and-Biogenic-Diseases-of-Animals; Public-Health-and-Nuisance-Pests; Biological-Control


TI: Ten year persistence of a non-augmented population of the brownbanded cockroach (Orthoptera: Blattellidae) parasitoid, Comperia merceti (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae).
AU: Hechmer-A; Driesche-RG-van; Van-Driesche-RG
JN: Florida-Entomologist.
YR: 1996
VL: 79
NO: 1
PP: 77-79
LA: En
MS: 3 ref.
AA: Department of Entomology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 010003, USA.
AB: A non-augmented population of the Supella longipalpa oothecal parasitoid C. merceti was observed to have persisted at 2 indoor urban sites (insectaries) in Massachusetts, USA, for 10 years. Levels of parasitism were high (36-93%), suggesting that this parasitoid has the potential to contribute to pest suppression at some types of urban sites, even when repeated releases of the parasitoid are not made.
DE: parasitoids-; persistence-; insectaries-; buildings-; oothecae-; control-; biological-control; hosts-; biology; Supella-longipalpa; Encyrtidae; Comperia-merceti; Comperia; Supella; Blattellidae; Blattaria; Dictyoptera; insects; arthropods; invertebrates; animals; Hymenoptera; Developed-Countries; North-America; America; OECD-Countries; New-England-States-of-USA; Northeastern-States-of-USA; USA; Encyrtidae; Public-Health-and-Nuisance-Pests; Parasites,-Vectors,-Pathogens-and-Biogenic-Diseases-of-Animals
GL: USA; Massachusetts


TI: Host-location kairomone from Periplaneta americana (L.) for parasitoid Aprostocetus hagenowii (Ratzeburg).
AU: Suiter-DR; Carlson-DA; Patterson-RS; Koehler-PG
JN: Journal-of-Chemical-Ecology.
YR: 1996
VL: 22
NO: 4
PP: 637-651; 38 ref.
LA: En
MS: 38 ref.
AA: Department of Entomology & Nematology, University of Florida, Building 970, Hull Rd., P.O. Box 110620, Gainesville, FL 32611-0620, USA.
AB: Chemically mediated host location in the eulophid parasitoid A. hagenowii was investigated. In Y-tube bioassays, 77.6% of female parasitoids responded to a P. americana ootheca; parasitoids did not respond to air with no volatile stimuli. Frass from adult cockroaches was as attractive as an ootheca. Bioassay of 1 ootheca equivalent of 5 lipid fractions (eluted with hexane and 1, 5, 10 and 30% ether in hexane) from silica gel column chromatography indicated that the active component was a hydrocarbon. Further separation and bioassay of oothecal hydrocarbons by AgNO3-impregnated silica gel column chromatography indicated that the biological activity was in one fraction. Gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of this fraction revealed a single peak; this peak was identified by researchers in 1963, 1969 and 1972 as (Z,Z)-6,9-heptacosadiene. Qualitative and quantitative GC analyses of total hydrocarbons from oothecae, frass and adult females were essentially identical; 6,9-heptacosadiene was the dominant hydrocarbon from each source. The alkadiene was 37 times more abundant in frass than on the ootheca. The volatilization of the alkadiene from oothecae was demonstrated by aeration and trapping on Super Q adsorbent. This study is the first evidence for biological activity of (Z,Z)-6,9-heptacosadiene, a major hydrocarbon component on adult female P. americana, on their oothecae and in their frass.
DE: kairomones-; host-seeking-behaviour; parasitoids-; hosts-; biology-; behaviour; ootheca-; Periplaneta-americana; Aprostocetus-hagenowii; frass; cuticular-hydrocarbons; 6,9-heptacosadiene; alkadienes; Chrysomelidae; Coleoptera; insects; arthropods; invertebrates; animals; Periplaneta; Blattidae; Blattaria; Dictyoptera; Aprostocetus; Eulophidae; Hymenoptera; Public-Health-and-Nuisance-Pests; Repellents-and-Attractants; Parasites,-Vectors,-Pathogens-and-Biogenic-Diseases-of-Animals; Biological-Control; Animal-Physiology-and-Biochemistry-Excluding-Nutrition; Animal-Behaviour


TI: Parasitism in oothecae of Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus).
FT: Parasitismo en ootecas de Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus).
AU: Fuentes-Gonzalez-O; Yanes-Diaz-L; Hernandez-LR
JN: Revista-Cubana-de-Medicina-Tropical.
YR: 1995
VL: 47
NO: 3
PP: 185-188
LA: Es
LS: En
MS: 15 ref.
AA: Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Pedro Kouri", Apartado 601, Marianao 13, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.
AB: Parasitism of oothecae of P. americana was examined in 3 'municipalities' of Havana City, Cuba, in April-July 1993. Tetrastichus hagenowii [Aprostocetus hagenowii] (or a similar species) attained significant levels of parasitism, with a mean of 21.5% of the 515 oothecae examined. This parasitoid accounted for 94.6% of the cases of parasitism, the remaining 5.4% being caused by Evania appendigaster. The number of A. hagenowii per ootheca varied from 35 to 191 (mean 86.5±45 individuals). Other observations on its development are presented.
DE: natural-enemies; hosts-; urban-areas; surveys-; parasitism-; biological-development; oothecae-; parasitoids; Periplaneta-americana; Aprostocetus-hagenowii; Evania-appendigaster; Periplaneta; Blattidae; Blattaria; Dictyoptera; insects; arthropods; invertebrates; animals; Aprostocetus; Eulophidae; Hymenoptera; Evania; Evaniidae; Greater-Antilles; Caribbean; America; Developing-Countries; Latin-America; Parasites,-Vectors,-Pathogens-and-Biogenic-Diseases-of-Animals; Public-Health-and-Nuisance-Pests; Biological-Control; Animal-Reproduction-and-Development
GL: Cuba


TI: Testing the effectiveness of the new bioinsecticides proposed as reductants of the population of cockroaches (Blattella germanica L.).
FT: Badanie laboratoryjne efektywnosci nowych preparatow biologicznych w redukcji liczebnosci prusakow (Blattella germanica L.).
AU: Zukowski-K
JN: Roczniki-Panstwowego-Zakladu-Higieny.
YR: 1995
VL: 46
NO: 3
PP: 293-297
LA: Pl
LS: En
MS: 16 ref.
AA: Z Zakladu Zwalczania Skazen Biologicznych Panstwowego Zaklady Higieny, 00-791 Warszawa, ul. Chocimska 24, Poland.
AB: The effectiveness of 3 new commercial bacterial insecticides against B. germanica was evaluated. Biobit (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki) proved to be the most effective. Its higher activity in comparison to Novo Skeetal (B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis) and Novodor (B. thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis) against cockroaches was observed for all concentrations tested. Females were the more sensitive to all tested products.
DE: toxicity-; entomopathogenic-bacteria; bacterial-insecticides; biological-control; pathogenicity-; control-; microbial-pesticides; evaluation; Blattella-Germanica; Bacillus-thuringiensis-subsp.-kurstaki; Bacillus-thuringiensis-subsp.-israelensis; Bacillus-thuringiensis; arthropods; Bacillus-thuringiensis-subsp-tenebrionis; Blattella; Blattellidae; Blattaria; Dictyoptera; insects; arthropods; invertebrates; animals; Bacillus-thuringiensis; Bacillus; Bacillaceae; Firmicutes; bacteria; prokaryotes; Public-Health-and-Nuisance-Pests; Parasites,-Vectors,-Pathogens-and-Biogenic-Diseases-of-Animals; Biological-Control


TI: Oral toxicity of Clostridium bifermentans serovariety malaysia, a new anaerobic microbial control agent of Blattella germanica adults.
AU: Seleena-P; Lee-HL
JN: Tropical-Biomedicine.
YR: 1995
VL: 12
NO: 1
PP: 13-16
LA: En
MS: 6 ref.
AA: Division of Medical Entomology, Institute for Medical Research, Jalan Pahang, 50588 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
AB: Clostridium bifermentans serovar. malaysia (Cbm) was found for the first time to exhibit significant activity towards B. germanica through the oral route. Overnight starved laboratory-bred B. germanica were fed with bacterial cells, final whole culture (FWC) and supernatant of Cbm in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth. The Cbm bacterial cells were not toxic to the cockroach but a mortality of 80-100% was achieved on feeding with the FWC and the supernatant for 10 days. A growth kinetics study indicated that the maximum blatticidal activity was observed from a 24 h Cbm culture in BHI broth.
DE: entomopathogenic-bacteria; toxicity-; pathogenicity; Blattella-germanica; Clostridium-bifermentans; Clostridium-bifermentans-serovar-malaysia; Blattella; Blattellidae; Blattaria; Dictyoptera; insects; arthropods; invertebrates; animals; Clostridium; Bacillaceae; Firmicutes; bacteria; prokaryotes; Public-Health-and-Nuisance-Pests; Parasites,-Vectors,-Pathogens-and-Biogenic-Diseases-of-Animals; Biological-Control


TI: Multisensory control of escape in the cockroach Periplaneta americana. II. Patterns of touch-evoked behavior.
AU: Comer-CM; Mara-E; Murphy-KA; Getman-M; Mungy-MC
JN: Journal-of-Comparative-Physiology.-A,-Sensory,-Neural,-and-Behavioral-Physiology.
YR: 1994
VL: 174
NO: 1
PP: 13-26
LA: En
MS: 43 ref.
AA: Neuroscience Group, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60680, USA.
AB: Interactions of cockroaches with 4 different predator species (Bufo marinus, Mus musculus, Lycosa sp. and Tenodera sp.) were recorded by videography. Some predators, especially spiders, struck from relatively short distances and usually contacted a cockroach prior to initiation of escape. This touch frequently occurred on an antenna. Cockroaches turned away from the side on which an antenna was touched. The success of escape from predators was then measured for cockroaches with either cerci or antennae ablated. Only antennal removal caused a significant decrease in the success of escape from spiders. With controlled stimuli, cockroaches responded reliably to abrupt touch of antennae, legs or body. Responses resembled wind-elicited escape: they consisted of a short latency turn (away from the stimulus) followed by running. However, lesions show that touch-evoked escape does not depend on the giant interneuron system. Following section of one cervical connective, cockroaches continued to respond to touching either antenna, but often turned inappropriately toward, rather than away from, stimuli applied to the antenna contralateral to the severed connective. For certain types of predators touch may be a primary cue by which cockroaches detect predatory attack. Descending somatosensory pathways for escape are distinct from the GI system.
DE: antennae-; predators-; sense-organs; physiology-; behaviour; Blattaria-; toads-; mice-; Araneae-; Mantodea-; Periplaneta-americana; escape; animals; insects; arthropods; invertebrates; Dictyoptera; Blattaria; Anura; amphibia; vertebrates; Chordata; Muridae; rodents; mammals; Arachnida; Periplaneta; Blattidae; Public-Health-and-Nuisance-Pests; Animal-Physiology-and-Biochemistry-Excluding-Nutrition; Animal-Behaviour


TI: The Bio-Path cockroach control chamber uses nature to control nature's pests.
AU: Andis-M
JN: Pest-Control.
YR: 1994
VL: 62
NO: 7
PP: 44, 48
LA: En
AA: EcoScience Corporation, Worcester, MA, USA.
AB: The Bio-Path Cockroach Control chamber uses the first microbial agent registered in the USA for cockroach control. Designed like a traditional bait station, it uses the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to penetrate the cockroach cuticle and destroy vital organs. The Bio-Path Chamber is particularly useful for cockroach control in restaurants, hotels and hospitals as part of an integrated pest management programme. Cockroaches which enter the bait chamber, become infected with the fungus, taking it back to their harborage where other cockroaches become contaminated.
DE: control-methods; entomogenous-fungi; bait-traps; Blattaria-; Metarhizium-anisopliae; Dictyoptera; insects; arthropods; invertebrates; animals; Metarhizium; Deuteromycotina; Eumycota; fungi; Developed-Countries; North-America; America; OECD-Countries; Parasites,-Vectors,-Pathogens-and-Biogenic-Diseases-of-Animals; Public-Health-and-Nuisance-Pests; Biological-Control
GL: USA


TI: A study on the densonucleosis virus from the smoky brown cockroach Periplaneta fuliginosa.
AU: Huang-YuanDa; Hu-YuanYang; Zhang-JiaMin; Yao-ErMei; Huang-YD; Hu-YY; Zhang-JM; Yao-EM
JN: Acta-Entomologica-Sinica.
YR: 1994
VL: 37
NO: 1
PP: 16-19
LA: Ch
LS: En
MS: 1 pl.; 5 ref.
AA: Wuhan Grain Industry College, Wuhan 430022, China.
AB: Using a densonucleosis virus (pfDNV) isolated by the authors in 1990 from P. fuliginosa, back-infection experiments were conducted according to Koch's hypothesis. The results showed that the virus isolated from the dead cockroach could cause the same disease symptoms in other individuals of the same species. The biophysical and biochemical properties of the virus were characterized. The purified viron is an icosahedral spheroid, 20 nm in diameter. Its nucleic acid is linear ssDNA, 1.7 æm in length, with a molecular weight of 1.7X106 Da. The structural protein comprises 4 peptides with molecular weights of 81, 62, 53 and 29 kDa. According to viral taxonomic rules, this is a densovirus in Parvoviridae. Now named P. fuliginosa densonucleosis virus or pfDNV, this may have potential for cockroach control.
DE: pathogenicity-; taxonomy-; new-species; infections; densonucleosis-viruses; Periplaneta-fuliginosa; Densovirus-; insect-viruses; densovirus; insect-viruses; entomopathogens; pathogens; Parvoviridae; animal-viruses; viruses; Periplaneta; Blattidae; Blattaria; Dictyoptera; insects; arthropods; invertebrates; animals; East-Asia; Asia; Developing-Countries; Public-Health-and-Nuisance-Pests; Biological-Control; Parasites,-Vectors,-Pathogens-and-Biogenic-Diseases-of-Animals
GL: China


TI: Observation of life history of Evania appendigaster (L.) (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae) in the laboratory.
AU: Yeh-ChinChang; Mu-ChuanChen; Yeh-CC; Mu-CC
JN: Chinese-Journal-of-Entomology.
YR: 1994
VL: 14
NO: 3
PP: 369-378
LA: Ch
LS: En
MS: 11 ref.
AA: Department of Entomology, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, 40227 Taiwan.
AB: The biology of the parasitoid E. appendigaster was investigated in eggs of Periplaneta americana in the laboratory. The duration of the egg, 1st-4th larval instars and prepupal and pupal stages averaged 2.3, 2.3, 4.5, 4.0, 4.7, 5.0 and 14.5 days, respectively, and the adult lifespan averaged 13.3 days for females and 14.9 days for males. Adult emergence peaked between 07.00-11.00 h and newly emerged adults were ready to mate and oviposit. Parasitoid development was not completed when host oothecae were over 30 days old, but parasitoid development time was unaffected when younger oothecae were parasitized.
DE: life-cycle; development-; longevity-; parasitism-; parasitoids-; hosts-; biology; Periplaneta-americana; Evania-appendigaster; parasites; Periplaneta; Blattidae; Blattaria; Dictyoptera; insects; arthropods; invertebrates; animals; Evania; Evaniidae; Hymenoptera; Developed-Countries; South-East-Asia; Asia; Biological-Control; Public-Health-and-Nuisance-Pests; Parasites,-Vectors,-Pathogens-and-Biogenic-Diseases-of-Animals
GL: Taiwan


TI: The use of legs as grasping structures during prey capture and feeding by the centipede Scolopendra viridis Say (Chilopoda: Scolopendridae).
AU: Elzinga-RJ
JN: Journal-of-the-Kansas-Entomological-Society.
YR: 1994
VL: 67
NO: 4
PP: 369-372
LA: En
MS: 8 ref.
AA: Department of Entomology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA.
AB: The centipede S. viridis was found to use its anterior front pairs of legs to hold prey during capture and feeding. The number of legs utilized varied with the size of prey. Additional observations on prey preference, capture and leg use are discussed. The insects used as prey were nymphs of Periplaneta americana and P. australasiae, adults of Gryllus sp., final-instar larvae of Tenebrio molitor, adults of Cochliomyia macellaria and Melanoplus femurrubrum. Only the latter species and (unidentified) earthworms were not eaten within 24 h of exposure.
DE: predatory-arthropods; biology-; behaviour-; prey-; predators-; feeding-behaviour; natural-enemies; agricultural-entomology; Scolopendra-; Cochliomyia-macellaria; Periplaneta-americana; Periplaneta-australasiae; Gryllus-; Tenebrio-molitor; Melanoplus-femurrubrum; insects-; arthropods; Scolopendra-viridis; predators; animals; arthropods; invertebrates; Scolopendridae; Chilopoda; Myriapoda; insects; Orthoptera; Coleoptera; Diptera; Cochliomyia; Calliphoridae; Dictyoptera; Blattaria; Periplaneta; Blattidae; Gryllidae; Tenebrio; Tenebrionidae; Melanoplus; Acrididae; Biological-Control; Animal-Behaviour


TI: Laboratory and field evaluations of an entomogenous nematode (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) for German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) control.
AU: Appel-AG; Benson-EP; Ellenberger-JM; Manweiler-SA
JN: Journal-of-Economic-Entomology.
YR: 1993
VL: 86
NO: 3
PP: 777-784
LA: En
MS: 27 ref.
AA: Department of Entomology and Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn University, AL 36849-5413, USA.
AB: Pads impregnated with the nematode Steinernema carpocapsae and enclosed in a moisture-retaining station were evaluated in field and laboratory experiments with Blattella germanica. In continuous exposure tests without harbourage, LT50s ranged from 2.06 to 12.64 days for 0.5X106 nematodes and 106 nematodes, respectively. LT50s estimated with Ebeling choice boxes were 2.5 to 8.4 times greater than those from the continuous exposure tests. Relative repellency, measured as the mean percentage of live cockroaches in the light of the choice box, was greatest for stations with 0.5X106 nematodes (6.65%) and least (3.70%) for stations containing 2X106 nematodes. Movement by cockroaches confined to nematode deposits declined linearly with increasing nematode density. The number of antennal preens by confined cockroaches increased curvilinearly with nematode density. A performance index that combined choice-box repellency and mortality data indicated that stations containing 2X106 nematodes had the greatest potential for field effectiveness. Stations containing 2X106 nematodes significantly reduced cockroach trap catch in infested apartments (in Alabama, USA).
DE: entomophilic-nematodes; dwellings-; control-; biological-control; biological-control-agents; evaluation-; microbial-pesticides; entomopathogens-; natural-enemies; pathogens; Steinernematidae-; Blattella-germanica; arthropods-; Neoaplectana-carpocapsae; Steinernema-carpocapsae; animal-parasitic-nematodes; Nematoda; invertebrates; animals; pesticides; insects; arthropods; Dictyoptera; Blattaria; Blattella; Blattellidae; Neoaplectana; Steinernematidae; North-America; America; East-South-Central-States-of-USA; Southern-States-of-USA; USA; Gulf-States-of-USA; Southeastern-States-of-USA; Public-Health-and-Nuisance-Pests; Medical-and-Veterinary-Entomology-Records-Discontinued; Pathogen,-Pest-and-Parasite-Management-General; Parasites,-Vectors,-Pathogens-and-Biogenic-Diseases-of-Animals
GL: USA; Alabama


TI: Evaluating different release strategies for the control of American cockroaches using the egg parasitoid, Aprostocetus hagenowii.
AU: Pawson-BM; Gold-RE; Wildey-KB (ed.); Robinson-WH
JN: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Insect Pests in the Urban Environment.
YR: 1993
PP: 407-413
LA: En
MS: 14 ref.
AA: Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2475, USA.
AB: The ability of Aprostocetus (Tetrastichus) hagenowii to find oothecae in plumbing systems infested with Periplaneta americana was evaluated using different release strategies for 6 weeks. This pilot study used 43 plumbing systems. The results indicate that the potential exists for using A. hagenowii to control P. periplaneta.
DE: oothecae-; parasitoids; Periplaneta-americana; Aprostocetus-hagenowii; plumbing-systems; release-strategies; parasites; Periplaneta; Blattidae; Blattaria; Dictyoptera; insects; arthropods; invertebrates; animals; Aprostocetus; Eulophidae; Hymenoptera; Public-Health-and-Nuisance-Pests; Parasites,-Vectors,-Pathogens-and-Biogenic-Diseases-of-Animals


TI: Propagation and release of Tetrastichus hagenowii (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) for cockroach control in Zunyi, Guizhou.
AU: Dai-XiaoHuang; Sun-GuoRong; Jin-ChunJian; Dai-XH; Sun-GR; Jin-CJ
JN: Chinese-Journal-of-Biological-Control.
YR: 1993
VL: 9
NO: 3
PP: 114-115
LA: Ch
LS: En
MS: 5 ref.
AA: Laboratory of Parasitology, Zunyi Medical College, Zunyi, Guizhou, China.
AB: Adults of T. hagenowii [Aprostocetus hagenowii] reared on an artificial diet were released in 159 domestic kitchens in Zunyi, Guizhou, China, to control Periplaneta fuliginosa. The highest parasitization rates of the cockroach oothecae were 93.8 and 95.1% at 40 and 80 days after release, respectively. The population density of the cockroach in these dwellings was significantly reduced and remained so for a year.
DE: dwellings-; parasitoids-; rearing-techniques; control-; biological-control; Periplaneta-fuliginosa; Aprostocetus-hagenowii; arthropods; kitchens; parasites; Dictyoptera; insects; arthropods; invertebrates; animals; Blattaria; Hymenoptera; Periplaneta; Blattidae; Aprostocetus; Eulophidae; East-Asia; Asia; Developing-Countries; South-Western-China; China; Public-Health-and-Nuisance-Pests
GL: China; Guizhou


TI: Studies on the stimulating behaviour of rectal secretions of cockroach on the oviposition behaviour of Tetrastichus hagenowii (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae).
AU: Dai-XH
JN: Chinese-Journal-of-Biological-Control.
YR: 1992
VL: 8
NO: 1
PP: 13-15
LA: Ch
LS: En
MS: 5 ref.
AA: Laboratory of Parasitology, Zunyi Medical College, Zunyi, Jiangxi, China.
AB: Laboratory studies demonstrated that the rectal secretions of female cockroaches (Periplaneta spp.) contained a kairomone which stimulated oviposition by the parasitoid T. hagenowii [Aprostocetus hagenowii]. When the active ingredient was extracted with acetone and applied to artifical eggs mimicking those of P. fuliginosa and P. japonica, 88 and 85.1% of female A. hagenowii inserted their ovipositors into the artificial eggs.
DE: Kairomones-; Secretions-; behaviour-; oviposition-; parasitoids-; parasitism-; biology-; hosts-; attractants; Hymenoptera-; Aprostocetus-hagenowii; Periplaneta-fuliginosa; Periplaneta-japonica; Periplaneta; insects; arthropods; invertebrates; animals; Hymenoptera; Dictyoptera; Blattaria; Aprostocetus; Eulophidae; Periplaneta; Blattidae; Parasites,-Vectors,-Pathogens-and-Biogenic-Diseases-of-Animals; Biological-Control; Medical-and-Veterinary-Entomology-Records-Discontinued; Public-Health-and-Nuisance-Pests; Animal-Behaviour


TI: Infestation dynamics of Blatticola blattae Graeffe (Nematoda: Thelastomatidae), a parasite of Blattella germanica L. (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).
AU: Morand-S; Rivault-C
JN: International-Journal-for-Parasitology.
YR: 1992
VL: 22
NO: 7
PP: 983-989
LA: En
MS: 14 ref.
AA: Laboratoire de Biologie Animale (CNRS, URA 698), Centre de Biologie et d'Ecologie tropicale et mediterraneenne, Universite de Perpignan, Avenue Villeneuve, Perpignan, France.
AB: The life-cycle of the thelastomatid nematode Blatticola blattae, a parasite of the cockroach Blattella germanica, was experimentally studied. Male thelastomatids developed more rapidly than females. Analysis of the distribution of the nematode within a cockroach population revealed an important regulation of parasitic dynamics. The parasites were underdistributed in the samples of the host population. However, they were aggregated in 1st-instar cockroach larvae. The sex ratio was unbalanced, in favour of males in younger cockroach larvae and in favour of females in older cockroaches. Analysis of the variations of this parasitism in relation to spatial structure of the population and host developmental stages revealed that infestation occurred mainly during the first 3 cockroach larval instars, and can originate from parasites in gravid female hosts. Finally, a strong regulation affects infrapopulations of the parasite, thus limiting males to 1 and females to 1 or 2 per host.
DE: Sex-ratio; Population-dynamics; Host-parasite-relationships; entomophilic-nematodes; parasitism-; life-cycle; Pathogenicity-; life-history; nematology-; natural-enemies; entomopathogens; Thelastomatidae-; Blattella-germanica; Insects; Blatticola-blattae; animal-parasitic-nematodes; Nematoda; invertebrates; animals; insects; arthropods; Dictyoptera; Blattaria; Blattella; Blattellidae; Public-Health-and-Nuisance-Pests; Medical-and-Veterinary-Entomology-Records-Discontinued; Biological-Control; Parasites,-Vectors,-Pathogens-and-Biogenic-Diseases-of-Animals


TI: Susceptibility of cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae, Blattidae) to infection by Steinernema carpocapsae.
AU: Koehler-PG; Patterson-RS; Martin-WR
JN: Journal-of-Economic-Entomology.
YR: 1992
VL: 85
NO: 4
PP: 1184-1187
LA: En
MS: 11 ref.
AA: Department of Entomology and Nematology, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.
AB: The susceptibility of Periplaneta americana, P. fuliginosa, Blatta orientalis, Blattella germanica and Supella longipalpa to Steinernema carpocapsae (All strain) was evaluated under laboratory conditions. A 1-ml water suspension containing 500,000 nematodes was placed on filter paper in a petri dish or the pad of a bait station. P. fuliginosa, Blatta orientalis, Blattella germanica and Supella longipalpa died within 1 day after placement in the petri dishes. The relative order for the LT50s were P. americana > Blatta orientalis > P. fuliginosa > S. longipalpa = Blattella germanica. All cockroaches actively groomed nematodes from legs and antennae after forced (petri dish) exposure. The LT50s for Steinernema carpocapsae for nonforced (bait station) exposure were significantly greater than those for forced exposure. The LT50s were 3.25, 4.13, 9.86 and 11.38 days for Supella longipalpa, B. germanica, Blatta orientalis and P. fuliginosa, respectively. The relative order of the LT50s after forced (P. americana > B. orientalis > P. fuliginosa > Blattella germanica = S. longipalpa) and nonforced (P. americana > P. fuliginosa > Blatta orientalis > Blattella germanica > S. longipalpa) exposure to Steinernema carpocapsae was inversely related to the moisture of their preferred habits.
DE: Susceptibility-; entomophilic-nematodes; infection-; Infectivity-; natural-enemies; nematology-; entomopathogens; Blattellidae-; Blattidae-; Steinernematidae-; Periplaneta-americana; Periplaneta-fuliginosa; Blatta-orientalis; Blattella-germanica; Supella-longipalpa; Blattaria-; Insects; Steinernema-carpocapsae; animal-parasitic-nematodes; Nematoda; invertebrates; animals; insects; arthropods; Blattaria; Dictyoptera; Periplaneta; Blatta; Blattella; Supella; Public-Health-and-Nuisance-Pests; Medical-and-Veterinary-Entomology-Records-Discontinued; Parasites,-Vectors,-Pathogens-and-Biogenic-Diseases-of-Animals; Biological-Control