Spotlight On...

Pesticides: Health Risks and Safety.

Pesticides are a major means of controlling pests and diseases of crops. However, there is increasing concern about the effects that pesticides may have on human health. This is of particular interest in developing countries, where the resources are not always available to ensure that health and safety risks are minimized. This Spotlight highlights relevant resources that are available from CABI.

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Other book titles on crop protection can browsed at the Online Bookshop.

A selection of abstracts on the health and safety aspects of pesticides taken from the Review of Agricultural Entomology, the Review of Plant Pathology, Weed Abstracts and Nematological Abstracts is given below.

Related items included in PEST CABWeb®:

  • Nematological Abstracts
  • All journals are now available via the internet with an extended backfile containing 10 years' of data.

  • links to pesticide-related sites
 

CABI Bioscience

The Biopesticides Programme at CABI Bioscience researches the development of biopesticides (biological pesticides based on beneficial insects, weed pathogens and entomopathogenic nematodes) as an alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. The programme includes research and development, training in insect pathology and the dissemination of information on biopesticides. 

CABI Bioscience is the lead institute of the International Biopesticides Consortium for Development. The aim of this initiative is to promote the development of biopesticide products in developing countries as safe and environmentally-friendly alternatives to chemical pesticides. Information on the IBCD is also available at CABI Bioscience's IBCD page

 


TI: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and occupational exposure to chemicals in Canada.
CT: Proceedings of the VIIth International Conference on Malignant Lymphoma, 2-5 June 1999, Lugano, Switzerland [edited by Zucca, E.; Roggero, E.].
AU: Mao, Y.\ Hu, J.\ Ugnat, A. M.\ White, K.
JN: Annals of Oncology
YR: 2000
VL: 11
NO: suppl.
PP: S69-S73
LA: En
MS: 20 ref.
AA: Cancer Bureau, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control, Health Protection Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
AB: This study assessed the effect of occupational exposure to specific chemicals on the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Mailed questionnaires were used to obtain data on 1469 newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed NHL cases and 5073 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in 8 Canadian provinces. Data was collected on socioeconomic status, life-style, diet, occupation, and years of exposure to any of 17 chemicals. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were derived by logistic regression. The study found an increased risk of NHL among males exposed to benzidine, mineral, cutting, or lubricating oil, pesticides, and herbicides. Compared with non-exposure to each specific chemical, the adjusted ORs were 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1-3.4) for benzidine, 1.3 (95% CI: 1.0-1.5) for mineral, cutting, or lubricating oil, 1.3 (95% CI: 1.0-1.6) for herbicides and 1.3 (95% CI: 1.0-1.6) for pesticides. Excess risk of NHL among females was associated with exposure to pesticides and wood dust. ORs increased with increasing exposure in years to benzidine and herbicides for males and with increasing exposure years to wood dust for females. These trends were statistically significant (P<0.05). The findings in this study suggest that occupational exposure to specific chemicals plays an important role in the development of NHL in Canada.
DE: herbicides\pesticides\questionnaires\wood dust\nontarget effects\nontarget organisms\man\occupational hazards\non-Hodgkin's lymphoma\mineral oils\lubricants\conferences\occupational health
GL: Canada


TI: Metabolism and environmental degradation of pyrethroid insecticides produce compounds with endocrine activities.
AU: Tyler, C. R.\ Beresford, N.\ Woning, M. van der\ Sumpter, J. P.\ Thorpe, K.
JN: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
YR: 2000
VL: 19
NO: 4
PP: 801-809
LA: En
MS: 41 ref.
AA: Department of Biological Sciences, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH, UK.
AB: Pyrethroids are semisynthetic derivatives of the chrysanthemumic acids that have been developed as insecticides, and they are in widespread use. Considerable information is available regarding the toxicity, metabolism, and environmental degradation of pyrethroids, but almost nothing is known about their interactions with hormone receptors. In this study, seven commercial pyrethroids as well as products of metabolism and environmental degradation of permethrin were tested for steroid activity (both as agonist and as antagonist) in recombinant yeasts expressing the human oestrogen and human androgen receptors. Pyrethroid insecticides had steroid receptor-binding activity. Fenpropathrin and permethrin both acted as weak oestrogen agonists. Allethrin, bioallethrin, and cypermethrin had antioestrogenic activity, with potencies between 1, 000-fold (bioallethrin) and 10,000-fold (allethrin) less than the established antioestrogen 4-OH-tamoxifen. Six of the seven pyrethroids tested had antiandrogenic activity (the most active, bioallethrin, was 70-fold less potent than flutamide). These activities, however, are believed to result either from contaminants/degradation products in the parent compounds or from metabolism of the parent compounds into active metabolites by the yeast. Three derivatives of permethrin all interacted with sex steroid hormone receptors. Three-phenoxybenzyl alcohol had both oestrogenic and antiandrogenic activity, with potencies more than 100-fold greater than that of the parent compound, permethrin. Three-phenoxybenzoic acid and the cyclopropane acid derivative both had antioestrogenic activity, with approximately 100-fold and 1, 000-fold lower potencies than 4-OH-tamoxifen, respectively. The data presented here highlight that an understanding of the metabolism and environmental degradation of chemicals is essential for assessing the potential of chemicals to have endocrine-modulating effects.
DE: degradation\environmental degradation\insecticides\pyrethroid insecticides\allethrin\bioallethrin\cypermethrin\derivatives\fenprop athrin\man\metabolites\permethrin\pyrethroids\receptors\toxicity\yea sts\nontarget effects


TI: Clinical, biochemical and neurobehavioural studies of workers engaged in the manufacture of quinalphos.
AU: Srivastava, A. K.\ Gupta, B. N.\ Bihari, V.\ Mathur, N.\ Srivastava, L.
P.\ Pangtey, B. S.\ Bharti, R. S.\ Kumar, P.
JN: Food and Chemical Toxicology
YR: 2000
VL: 38
NO: 1
PP: 65-69
LA: En
MS: 19 ref.
AA: Epidemiology Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Post Box 80, M.G. Road, Lucknow, 226 001, India.
AB: 59 workers exposed to different chemicals during the manufacture of quinalphos, an organophosphate pesticide (OP) and 17 control subjects were studied. Despite similar blood acetylcholinesterase (AChE) levels in both the exposed and control subjects, a significant number of exposed subjects had altered plantar and ankle reflexes. Higher nervous functions such as memory, learning and vigilance were also found to be affected in these subjects. These findings were attributed to chronic low dose combined exposure to different chemicals used/formed in the manufacture of quinalphos. The study raises the doubt that monitoring of AChE alone among subjects engaged in the manufacture of OP pesticides may not be an adequate safeguard as regards to their health.
DE:
quinalphos\health\monitoring\organophosphorus pesticides\pesticides\man\nontarget effects\manufacture\organophosphorus compounds


TI: Certain organochlorine and organobromine contaminants in Swedish human milk in perspective of past 20-30 years.
CT: Special issue: Halogenated environmental organic pollutants - dioxin '98. Eighteenth Symposium. Stockholm, Sweden, 17-21 August, 1998 [edited by Birnbaum, L. S.; Fielder, H.; Hutzinger, O.; Louw, L.; Needham, L. L.; Patterson, Jr., D. G.; Vetter, W.].
AU: Noren, K.\ Meironyte, D.
JN: Chemosphere
YR: 2000
VL: 40
NO: 9/11
PP: 1111-1123
LA: En
MS: 48 ref.
AA: Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
AB: Investigations on organochlorine compounds in breast milk from women living in the Stockholm region of Sweden were started in 1967. The present study summarises the investigations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), naphthalenes (PCNs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and pesticides (DDT, DDE, hexachlorobenzene, dieldrin) as well as methylsulfonyl metabolites of PCBs and DDE in human milk sampled during different periods up to 1997. During the course of 20-30 yr the levels of organochlorine compounds in human milk have decreased to various extents. A decrease to half of the original concentration was attained over 4-17 yr periods. On the contrary to the organochlorine compounds, the concentrations of PBDEs increased during the period 1972-97, indicating a doubling of levels in 5 yr. The levels reflect the environmental contamination and background levels in the population. The accumulation and ongoing increase in the levels of PBDEs call for immediate measures to stop environmental pollution and human exposure to PBDEs.
DE: pollution\nontarget effects\environment\pesticides\pesticide residues\contaminants\man\human milk\contamination\DDE\DDT\dieldrin\hexachlorobenzene\metabolites\or ganochlorine compounds\polychlorinated biphenyls\insecticides\insecticide residues\fungicides\fungicide residues\conferences
GL: Sweden


TI: Potential pathways and exposure to explain the human body burden of organochlorine compounds: a multivariate statistical analysis of human monitoring in Wurzburg, Germany.
CT: Special issue: Halogenated environmental organic pollutants - dioxin '98. Eighteenth Symposium. Stockholm, Sweden, 17-21 August, 1998 [edited by Birnbaum, L. S.; Fielder, H.; Hutzinger, O.; Louw, L.; Needham, L. L.; Patterson, Jr., D. G.; Vetter, W.].
AU: Loffler, G.\ Bavel, B. van
JN: Chemosphere
YR: 2000
VL: 40
NO: 9/11
PP: 1075-1082
LA: En
MS: 19 ref.
AA: Department of Geography, University of Wurzburg, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany.
AB: By means of multivariate statistical analysis of human monitoring in the vicinity of Wurzburg, Germany, it is examined whether the organochlorine levels in blood data of 309 persons can in part be explained by pollution from outdoor and/or indoor air. Although diet is the main source for intake this study concentrated on the remaining sources. Using 12 personal and geographical variables, which describe some aspects or components of indoor or outdoor exposure, the quantities of the different pathways for the intake are calculated and shown. Besides the impact of the indoor air, which can be pointed out for intake at the workplace for some PCB-congeners, also the hypothesis of the existence of an intake from outdoor air for some organochlorine compounds cannot be rejected. Here, the origin is the spatial variation of the pollution, which can be directly traced back to micro-climatic processes, local relief conditions, and the functional set-up of the town.
DE: pollution\nontarget effects\environment\pesticides\pesticide residues\man\monitoring\organochlorine compounds\statistical analysis\spatial variation\organochlorine pesticides
GL: Germany


TI: Frequencies of SCEs in peripheral blood lymphocytes of pesticide workers.
AU: Padmavathi, P.\ Prabhavathi, P. A.\ Reddy, P. P.
JN: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
YR: 2000
VL: 64
NO: 2
PP: 155-160
LA: En
MS: 37 ref.
AA: Institute of Genetics, Hospital for Genetic Diseases, Osmania University, Begumpet, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh 500 016, India.
DE: pesticides\nontarget effects\man\blood\lymphocytes


TI: Relative lipid content as the sole mechanistic determinant of the adipose tissue:blood partition coefficients of highly lipophilic organic chemicals.
AU: Sami Haddad\ Poulin, P.\ Kannan Krishnan
JN: Chemosphere
YR: 2000
VL: 40
NO: 8
PP: 839-843
LA: En
MS: 30 ref.
AA: Groupe de recherche en toxicologie humaine (TOXHUM), Faculte de medecine, Universite de Montreal, Case Postale 6128, Succursale centre-ville, Montreal, PQ, H3C 3J7, Canada.
AB: The adipose tissue:blood partition coefficient (PC(at:b)) refers to the ratio of chemical concentration or solubility in adipose tissue and blood. The solubility of a chemical in adipose tissue or whole blood is equal to the sum total of its solubility in lipid and water fractions of these matrices. For highly lipophilic organic chemicals (HLOCs, i.e., chemicals with log n-octanol:water partition coefficients (PC(o:w)) greater than four), their solubility in the water fractions of both tissue and blood is negligible, and therefore their solubility in lipid fractions of tissue and blood alone determines PC(at:b). Since the numerical value representing chemical solubility in lipids is likely to be the same for both blood lipids and adipose tissue lipids, the PC(at:b) values should be hypothetically equal to the ratio of lipid content of adipose tissue and blood. The objective of the present study was, therefore, to verify whether the PC(at:b)s of HLOCs (volatile organics, dioxins, PCBs, PBBs, and DDT) were equal to the ratio of adipose tissue and blood lipid concentrations. Data on the lipid content of rat and human blood and adipose tissues were obtained from the literature. The calculated tissue:blood lipid ratios were comparable to the human and rat PC(at:b) of volatile organic chemicals, dioxins, PCBs, PBBs and/or DDT obtained from the literature. These results suggest that, regardless of the identity and PC(o:w) of HLOCs, their PC(at:b) is equal to the ratio of lipid in adipose tissues and blood.
DE: man\insecticides\nontarget effects\organic compounds\adipose tissue\DDT\lipids\polychlorinated biphenyls\rats\laboratory animals


TI: Comparison of organochlorine pesticide levels in adipose tissue and blood serum from mothers living in Veracruz, Mexico.
AU: Waliszewski, S. M.\ Aguirre, A. A.\ Infanzon, R. M.\ Lopez-Carrillo, L.\ Torres-Sanchez, L.
JN: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
YR: 2000
VL: 64
NO: 1
PP: 8-15
LA: En
MS: 23 ref.
AA: Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Veracruz, SS Juan Pablo II,
Boca del Rio, Ver. C. P. 94290, Mexico.
AB: Adipose tissue and blood serum samples were obtained from 64 mothers during October 1997-June 1998 in Mexico. The most common pesticides in the samples studied were HCB [hexachlorobenzene],
β-HCH, p’-DDE and p,p’-DDT, with 100% of adipose samples having these pesticides. HCH and p,p-DDE were also present in 100% of blood serum samples. Organochlorine pesticides appeared to be sequestered rapidly from the blood to adipose tissue. It is concluded that the evaluation of body burden with organochlorine pesticides by blood serum determination on fat can serve as a rapid epidemiological method.
DE: Mexico\organochlorine pesticides\pesticides\HCH\DDT\hexachlorobenzene\insecticide residues\man\nontarget effects\blood\adipose tissue
GL:
Mexico


TI: The potential for operator hand contamination to pesticides during the mixing and loading procedure.
CT: Pesticide application, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK, 17-18 January 2000 [edited by Cross, J. V.; Gilbert, A. J.; Glass, C. R.; Taylor, W. A.; Walklate, P. J.; Western, N. M.].
AU: Wild, S. A.\ Mathers, J. J.\ Glass, C. R.
JN: Aspects of Applied Biology
YR: 2000
NO: No. 57
PP: 179-183
LA: En
MS: 5 ref.
AA: Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York, YO41 1LZ, UK.
AB: The operations involved with concentrate handling are often the most hazardous to the operator in terms of potential dermal exposure to the active substance (a.s.). The Application Hazards Unit (AHU) of the Central Science Laboratory (CSL), UK, has generated a large quantity of potential operator exposure (POE) data following a common protocol since the early 1980's. The protocol simulates pouring containers into a tank top. These data quantify both POE (for hands, face and body) and potential environmental exposure (spillage onto the tank top or ground) to concentrated pesticides during the mixing and loading process. Data has recently been generated with 3 sizes of pesticide containers with simulated emptying procedures. A system using size and frequency of contamination was used to summarize the trials, which used 8 categories to group the contamination. The results indicated that hand contamination mostly occurred within the <0.01 ml category for all container sizes. Spillages were shown to provide more of a range in the amounts of contamination. Spillage of liquid was also more dependant on the container size, with the larger containers resulting in greater contamination. Further studies are on-going with a modified protocol using concentrate handling procedures more representative of current practice, i.e. with induction hoppers and mechanical transfer devices such as closed transfer systems (compliant with BS 6356 Part 9).
DE: conferences\pesticides\equipment\contamination\pesticides\containers\handli ng\hazards\spraying equipment\safety at work\occupational hazards\contamination\nontarget effects\safety
GL: UK


TI: A comparative study of the potential dermal exposure of an operator with two pesticide application techniques in a tomato greenhouse.
CT: Pesticide application, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK, 17-18 January 2000 [edited by Cross, J. V.; Gilbert, A. J.; Glass, C. R.; Taylor, W. A.; Walklate, P. J.; Western, N. M.].
AU: Moreira, J. F.\ Santos, J.\ Glass, C. R.
JN: Aspects of Applied Biology
YR: 2000
NO: No. 57
PP: 399-404
LA: En
MS: 6 ref.
AA: Ministerio da Agricultura, do Desenvolvimento Rural e das Pescas Direccao-Geral de Proteccao das Culturas, Quinta do Marques, 2780 Oeiras, Portugal.
AB: Two commonly used pesticide application techniques in the greenhouse of Portugal were evaluated in terms of crop coverage achieved and potential dermal operator exposure. Comparative studies were done in a mature tomato crop with a traditional high volume application technique with hand held lance and a hydraulic nozzle, and a reduced volume technique using a motorized knapsack mistblower. Potential dermal exposure of the operator was measured based on the tracer protocol developed for the standards measurements and testing project. The coverage achieved on the crop was estimated by placing water sensitive papers at a number of heights within the crop canopy. The number and size of the droplets was determined using an image analysis technique. The potential dermal exposure to operator was greater with the high volume application technique than the reduced volume mistblower technique. When the application volumes (i.e. the likely concentration of the tank solution) was taken into account, the rate of potential dermal exposure was greater with the high volume technique by a factor of three. It is suggested that the air assistance helps to reduce contact between the operator and the spray cloud generated. However, the coverage achieved with the high volume technique was more uniform than with the mistblower.
DE: conferences\pesticides\application\equipment\safety at work\nontarget effects\safety\man\exposure\spraying equipment\workers\spraying
GL: Portugal


TI: Polyamines in the lung: polyamine uptake and polyamine-linked pathological or toxicological conditions.
AU: Hoet, P. H. M.\ Nemery, B.
JN: American Journal of Physiology
YR: 2000
VL: 278
NO: 3
PP: L417-L433
LA: En
MS: 173 ref.
AA: Unit of Lung Toxicology, Laboratory of Pneumology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.
AB: Polyamines in the lung are reviewed, including the research into the mechanism of selective pneumotoxicity of paraquat. Polyamine uptake in the lung, including the active uptake of paraquat, and polyamines in pulmonary pathology and toxicology are reviewed.
DE: lungs\man\polyamines\toxicity\paraquat\herbicides\nontarget effects\toxicology\nontarget organisms\reviews\toxicology\pathology


TI: Worker exposure to pesticides - a pan European approach.
CT: Pesticide application, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK, 17-18 January
2000 [edited by Cross, J. V.; Gilbert, A. J.; Glass, C. R.; Taylor, W. A.; Walklate, P. J.; Western, N. M.].
AU: Glass, C. R.\ Gilbert, A. J.\ Mathers, J. J.\ Vidal, J. L. M.\ Gonzalez, F. J. E.\ Moreira, J. F.\ Machera, K.\ Kapetanakis, E.\ Capri, E.
JN: Aspects of Applied Biology
YR: 2000
NO: No. 57
PP: 363-369
LA: En
MS: 12 ref.
AA: Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York, North Yorkshire YO41 1LZ, UK.
AB: The use of pesticides within the European Union is covered by the Common Acceptance Directive 91/414/EEC setting out the regulatory requirements to be followed by each national regulatory authority. An assessment or estimation of operator exposure must be made, which can be done with a suitable calculation model. A number of predictive models are currently used by regulatory authorities. The flexibility and robustness of such models depends on the quality and quantity of the data supporting the predictive model, and the degree to which data is available for the many relevant pesticide use scenarios. The models are from northern European countries, although the development of a harmonized European Predictive Operator Exposure Model (EUROPOEM (1)) under a concerted action funded by the EU is nearing completion. New data, to complete the database, are still required, but data are now becoming available for a range of southern European conditions. Differences in climate, local agronomic practices and the availability (and use) of adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) are all important factors to consider for completing risk assessments.
DE: conferences\pesticides\application\European Union\nontarget organisms\safety at work\occupational hazards\man\legislation\law\directives\models\risk assessment\safety\models
GL: Europe


TI: Human semen quality in relation to dietary pesticide exposure and organic diet.
AU: Juhler, R. K.\ Larsen, S. B.\ Meyer, O.\ Jensen, N. D.\ Spano, M.\ Giwercman, A.\ Bonde, J. P.
JN: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
YR: 1999
VL: 37
NO: 3
PP: 415-423
LA: En
MS: 34 ref.
AA: Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Morkhoj Bygade 19, 2860 Soborg, Denmark.
AB: A study was carried out to determine whether farmers having a high intake of organic grown commodities had high semen quality due to their expected lower level of dietary pesticides intake. Food frequency data and semen were collected from 256 farmers who were selected from central registers in Denmark. The farmers were divided into 3 groups where commodities from organic production contributed to no (N, 0%), medium (M, 1-49%) or a high (H, 50-100%) proportion of the fruit and vegetables consumed. The current individual dietary intake of 40 pesticides was estimated using food frequencies and generalized serving size data in combination with data on pesticide concentrations in food commodities as obtained from the National Danish Food Monitoring Program. The estimated pesticide intake was significantly lower among farmers of group H, but for all 3 groups of farmers the average dietary intake of 40 pesticides was at or below 1% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI), except for the dithiocarbamates, methidathion and 2-phenylphenol. The median sperm concentration for the 3 groups of farmers was not significantly different (p=0.40). The group of men without organic food intake had a significant lower proportion of morphologically normal spermatozoa, but in relation to 14 other semen parameters no significant differences were found between the groups. Intake of 40 individual pesticides was correlated with 4 semen parameters (concentration, percentage dead spermatozoa, percentage normal sperm heads and motility (VCL)). Five significant correlations (p value 0.01) were found among the 160 comparisons in relation to percentage dead spermatozoa: azinphos-methyl, carbaryl, chlorfenson, fenitrothion and tetradifon. For all of them a lower percentage of dead spermatozoa were found in the groups with a high dietary intake of the specific pesticide. In contrast, for all pesticides evaluated only minor differences were found between the groups when considering spermatozoa concentration, morphology, and motility. It is concluded that the estimated dietary intake of 40 pesticides did not entail a risk of impaired semen quality, but precautions should be taken when generalizing this negative result to populations with a higher dietary exposure level or an intake of other groups of pesticides.
DE: pesticides\spermatozoa\pesticide residues\nontarget organisms\nontarget effects\reproduction\man\dithiocarbamate fungicides\methidathion\azinphos-methyl\carbaryl\chlorfenson\fenitro thion\tetradifon
GL: Denmark


TI: Pesticide residues in horticultural products and carcinogenic risk for consumers.
CT: Human and environmental exposure to xenobiotics. Proceedings of the XI Symposium Pesticide Chemistry, Cremona, Italy, 11-15 September, 1999 [edited by Del Re, A. A. M.; Brown, C.; Capri, E.; Errera, G.; Evans, S. P.; Trevisan, M.].
AU: Caffarelli, V.\ Rapagnani, M. R.\ Letardi, A.\ Triolo, L.\ Santaroni, P.\ Lancia, B.
YR: 1999
PP: 665-669
BN: ISBN 88-7830-299-6
LA: En
MS: 14 ref.
AA: ENEA Casaccia, Dip. Innovazione, Div. Biotecnologie e Agricoltura, Sezione Agricoltura e Ambiente, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060 Roma, Italy.
AB: The extent of carcinogenic risk involved in exposure to pesticide residues through ingestion was estimated. Exposure was calculated using food consumption data provided by the Italian National Institute of Nutrition and data on pesticide residues found in fruit and vegetables by the Italian Regional Agency for Environmental Protection in 1996 and 1997. The carcinogenic risk was calculated using a time-dependent multistage model and the pesticide oncogenic potential coefficient, Q*. The risk was evaluated for different age groups. The carcinogenic risk, during a lifespan of 70 years, was 100.10(-4) in 1996 and 168.10(-4) in 1997. The greatest risk was associated with exposure occurring during the first 10 years of life. The accumulated risk in the first year of life is about 6-8%, rising to 52-53% in the first 5 years and 80-81% after the age of 10. The greatest risk factor was associated with dithiocarbamates, specifically ethylenebisdithiocarbamate fungicides.
DE: conferences\carcinogens\risk assessment\pesticides\pesticide residues\food contamination\fruit\vegetables\models\fungicides\dithiocarbamate fungicides\nontarget effects\man
GL: Italy


TI: Organochlorine insecticides residues in human milk: a study of lactating mothers in Siphofaneni, Swaziland.
AU: Okonkwo, J. O.\ Kampira, L.\ Chingakule, D. D. K.
JN: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
YR: 1999
VL: 63
NO: 2
PP: 243-247
LA: En
MS: 10 ref.
AA: Department of Ecology and Resource Management, School of Environmental Sciences, University of Venda, P/bag X5050, Thohoyandou, South Africa.
AB: Following the application of DDT as wettable powder to the inner walls of homes during 1994-95, the level of DDT and its metabolite, DDE, was estimated in human milk in Siphofaneni, Swaziland. The highest mean value, 1.13 +/- 0.18 mg/kg was shown by p,p’DDT, and the lowest mean value, 0.2 +/- 0.01 mg/kg was observed for p,p DDE. It was estimated that 75.7, 57.3 and 5.0% of p,p’DDT, o,p’ DDT and p,p’DDE, respectively, exceeded the FAO/WHO acceptable daily intake for infants. All the sites had mean sum DDT residues that exceeded the acceptable limit. No correlation was observed between maternal age and levels of DDT and DDE.
DE: human milk\insecticides\milk\mothers\residues\Swaziland\man\DDT\DDE\insecti cide residues\milk\human milk\nontarget effects
GL: Swaziland


TI: Forensic toxicological implication of acute fatal poisoning cases due to benfuracarb ingestion.
AU: Lee, S. K.\ Ameno, K.\ Yang, J. Y.\ In, S. W.\ Kim, K. U.\ Kwon, T. J.\ Yoo, Y. C.\ Kubota, T.\ Ameno, S.\ Ijiri, I.
JN: International Journal of Legal Medicine
YR: 1999
VL: 112
NO: 4
PP: 268-270
LA: En
MS: 10 ref.
AA: National Institute of Scientific Investigation, 331-1, Sinwol 7-dong, Yangchon-gu, Seoul 158-097, Korea Republic.
AB: Three cases involving acute fatalities due to benfuracarb ingestion in man, and the forensic toxicological implications are described. Benfuracarb and its main metabolite carbofuran, were detected using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS) after extraction with ethyl acetate and then quantified using gas chromatography (GC) equipped with NPD. The blood levels of benfuracarb and carbofuran were in the range of 0.30-2.32
μg/ml and 1.45-1.47 μg/ml, respectively. Benfuracarb was not detected in urine, but carbofuran was detected in the range of 0.53-2.66 μg/ml.
DE:
benfuracarb\poisoning\carbamates\carbofuran\ chromatography\extraction\gas chromatography\insecticides\toxicology\detection\man\nontarget effects


TI: Determinants of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDE) concentration in adipose tissue in women from five European cities.
AU: Sanz-Gallardo, M. I.\ Guallar, E.\ Veer, P. van't\ Longnecker, M. P.\ Strain, J. J.\ Martin, B. C.\ Kardinaal, A. F. M.\ Fernandez-Crehuet, J.\ Thamm, M.\ Kohlmeier, L.\ Kok, F. J.\ Martin-Moreno, J. M.
JN: Archives of Environmental Health
YR: 1999
VL: 54
NO: 4
PP: 277-283
LA: En
MS: 31 ref.
AA: Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, National School of Public Health, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
AB: To identify the determinants of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p, p'-DDE) in adipose tissue in subjects who participated in a cross-sectional study, fatty acids, antioxidants and p,p'-DDE were studied in aspirates of adipose tissue of 328 postmenopausal women from 5 European countries (Germany, Netherlands, Northern Ireland, Switzerland and Spain). The overall mean of p,p'-DDE concentration
was 1.66 μg/g of fatty acids. In a multiple-regression analysis, the main predictors of log(10)(p,p'-DDE) were centre of recruitment (p<0.0001), adipose arachidic acid (p=0.001) and adipose retinol (p=0.04). These factors explained 14.9% of the overall variability of log(10)(p,p'-DDE). In this study, adipose tissue p,p'-DDE concentrations were only weakly related with biomarkers reflecting intake of fish and other foods. This result is consistent with the notion that p,p'-DDE exists in different foods and, given the widespread contamination of the food chain, is relatively evenly distributed among foods.
DE: DDE\antioxidants\fatty acids\foods\nontarget effects\nontarget organisms\man\pesticide residues\pesticides
GL: Europe\Germany\Netherlands\UK\Switzerland\Spain


TI: Effects of organochlorine xenobiotics on human spermatozoa.
CT: Endocrine disrupting chemicals and human health. Proceedings of a workshop held by the Instituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy, 25-27 November 1997 [edited by di Domenico, A.; Alleva, E.].
AU: Silvestroni, L.\ Palleschi, S.
JN: Chemosphere
YR: 1999
VL: 39
NO: 8
PP: 1249-1252
LA: En
MS: 8 ref.
AA: Department of Medical Physiopathology, University of Rome "La Sapienza", Viale del Policlinico, 00161 Rome, Italy.
AB: Human spermatozoa were exposed to 0.1, 1.0, 5.0, 15.0 and 30.0
μM lindane for 15 min. Lindane inhibited both spontaneous and progesterone-inducible acrosome reactions in a dose-dependent manner. Doses of lindane as low as those found in female genital tract secretions affected the sperm cytological responsiveness to progesterone, which is the physiological agonist which stimulates the onset of acrosome reactions at the site of fertilization. Maximal inhibition was observed at 5 μM lindane. Lindane was able to inhibit progesterone-stimulatable acrosome reactions without interfering with the early steps of the signal transduction pathway activated by the steroid. It is suggested that sperm capacity to undergo membrane fusion is frustrated by biophysical modifications of the cell surface caused by lindane partition. It is hypothesized that even background levels of lindane may exert antifertility effects independently of the health status of male and female reproductive organs.
DE: conferences\man\spermatozoa\insecticides\lindane\progesterone\nontarget effects\reproductive disorders\acrosome\acrosome reaction


TI: Effects of pesticide exposure on time to pregnancy: results of a multicenter study in France and Denmark.
AU: Thonneau, P.\ Abell, A.\ Larsen, S. B.\ Bonde, J. P.\ Joffe, M.\ Clavert, A.\ Ducot, B.\ Multigner, L.\ Danscher, G.
JN: American Journal of Epidemiology
YR: 1999
VL: 150
NO: 2
PP: 157-163
LA: En
MS: 22 ref.
AA: Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), Unite 292, Bicetre Hospital, Le Kremlin-Bicetre, France.
AB: The aim of this study was to determine whether there was a relationship between male exposure to pesticides and the amount of time needed to conceive (time to pregnancy) for farmers and agricultural workers in France and Denmark. Retrospective studies were used to compare the time to pregnancy of couples in which the man was exposed to pesticides during the year before the birth of their youngest child with that of couples in which the man was not exposed. In 1995 and 1996, 362 French rural workers (142 exposed to pesticides and 220 not exposed), 449 Danish farmers (326 conventional farmers exposed to pesticides and 123 nonexposed organic farmers), and 121 Danish greenhouse workers exposed to pesticides were studied. The fecundability ratio for exposure to pesticides (Cox model, before and after adjustment for confounding factors) did not differ from 1 in any of the 3 populations. In France, the adjusted fecundability ratio was 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89-1.55) for exposed and nonexposed agricultural workers. In Denmark, it was 1.09 (95% CI 0.82-1.43) for exposed and nonexposed farmers and 0.83 (95% CI 0.69-1.18) for greenhouse workers and nonexposed farmers. Thus, this study found no relation between fertility (time to pregnancy) and male exposure to pesticides.
DE: pesticides\exposure\pregnancy\farm workers\farmers\fertility\workers\man\nontarget effects\conception\epidemiology
GL: Denmark\France


TI: Concentration of organochlorines in human brain, liver, and adipose tissue autopsy samples from Greenland.
AU: Dewailly, E.\ Mulvad, G.\ Pedersen, H. S.\ Ayotte, P.\ Demers, A.\ Weber, J. P.\ Hansen, J. C.
JN: Environmental Health Perspectives
YR: 1999
VL: 107
NO: 10
PP: 823-828
LA: En
MS: 51 ref.
AA: Unite de Recherche en Sante Publique, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Beauport, Quebec, Canada.
AB: Studies were conducted to determine the concentrations of organochlorine compounds in liver, brain, omental fat, and subcutaneous abdominal fat samples collected from deceased Greenlanders between 1992 and 1994. Eleven chlorinated pesticides and 14 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners were measured in tissue lipid extracts by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Mean concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, 2, 2’-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene, mirex,
trans-nonachlor, and oxychlordane in adipose tissue samples from Greenlanders were 3- to 34-fold higher than those measured using the same analytical method in samples from Canadians in Quebec City, Quebec. Brain lipids contained lower concentrations of all organochlorines than lipids extracted from other tissues. Organochlorine residue levels in lipid extracts from liver, omental fat, and subcutaneous abdominal fat samples were similar, with the exception of β-hexachlorocyclohexane, which reached a greater concentration in liver lipids than in lipids from both adipose tissues (4-fold; p<0.05). Comparisons with available international data on adipose tissue levels revealed that the organochlorine body burden in the Inuit population of Greenland is presently among the highest resulting from environmental exposure.
DE: insecticide residues\man\nontarget effects\insecticides\liver\brain\fat\mirex\analytical methods\chromatography\organochlorine insecticides\lipids
GL: Greenland\Canada\Quebec


TI: Differential interaction of the methoxychlor metabolite 2, 2-bis-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane with estrogen receptors α and β.
AU:
Gaido, K. W.\ Leonard, L. S.\ Maness, S. C.\ Hall, J. M.\ McDonnell, D. P.\ Saville, B.\ Safe, S.
JN: Endocrinology (Philadelphia)
YR: 1999
VL: 140
NO: 12
PP: 5746-5753
LA: En
MS: 53 ref.
AA: Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology, P. O. Box 12137, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.
AB: Concern that some chemicals in our environment may affect human health by disrupting normal endocrine function has prompted research on interactions of environmental contaminants with steroid hormone receptors. We compared the activity of 2,2-bis-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE), an estrogenic metabolite of the organochlorine insecticide methoxychlor, at estrogen receptor
α (ERα) and estrogen receptor β (ERβ). Human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were transiently transfected with either human or rat Erα or ERβ plus an estrogen-responsive, complement 3-luciferase construct containing a complement 3 gene promoter sequence linked to a luciferase reporter gene. After transfection, cells were treated with various concentrations of HPTE in the presence (for detecting antagonism) or absence (for detecting agonism) of 17β-estradiol. HPTE was a potent ERα agonist in HepG2 cells, with EC(50) values of approximately 5 X 10 (-8) and 10(-8) M for human and rat ERα, respectively. In contrast, HPTE had minimal agonist activity with either human or rat Erβ and almost completely abolished 17β-estradiol-induced Erβ-mediated activity. Moreover, HPTE behaved as an ERα agonist and an Erβ antagonist with other estrogen-responsive promoters (ERE-MMTV and vtERE) in HepG2 and HeLa cells. This study demonstrates the complexity involved in determining the mechanism of action of endocrine-active chemicals that may act as agonists or antagonist through one or more hormone receptors.
DE: methoxychlor\insecticides\insecticide residues\metabolites\man\nontarget effects\rats\oestrogen receptors\agonists\antagonists\man\sublethal effects


TI: Potential operator, bystander and environmental exposure in sloped vineyards.
CT: Human and environmental exposure to xenobiotics. Proceedings of the XI Symposium Pesticide Chemistry, Cremona, Italy, 11-15 September, 1999 [edited by Del Re, A. A. M.; Brown, C.; Capri, E.; Errera, G.; Evans, S. P.; Trevisan, M.].
AU: Mazzi, F.\ Capri, E.\ Trevisan, M.\ Glass, C. R.\ Wild, S. A.
YR: 1999
PP: 731-745
BN: ISBN 88-7830-299-6
LA: En
MS: 22 ref.
AA: Istituto di Chimica Agraria ed Ambientale, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore Piacenza, Italy.
AB: The potential dermal and inhalation exposure of the applicator and bystander, together with spray drift, were investigated in vineyards on hills near Piacenza, Italy. The trials were conducted with the tracer Sunset Yellow. The determination of potential dermal exposure was carried out with the whole body dosimetry method. The potential inhalation exposure was measured using a personal air sampler. Airborne spray drift was collected with polyethylene lines at different distances from the treated area. The measurement of ground deposit was carried out with horizontal collectors placed at ground level. Potential dermal operator exposure ranged from 43 to 574 ml/h. Airborne spray drift at 5 m from the edge of the treated area ranged from 148 to 336 ml/linear metre. Ground deposited spray drift at 5 m ranged from 17 to 56 litres/ha.
DE: conferences\pesticides\drift\man\safety\safety at work\pollution\vineyards\inhalation
GL: Italy


TI: Poisoning evidence and clinical symptoms in Tunisian agricultural workers exposed to insecticides.
CT: Human and environmental exposure to xenobiotics. Proceedings of the XI Symposium Pesticide Chemistry, Cremona, Italy, 11-15 September, 1999 [edited by Del Re, A. A. M.; Brown, C.; Capri, E.; Errera, G.; Evans, S. P.; Trevisan, M.].
AU: Hadidane, R.\ Ayachi, S.\ Ayadi, H.\ Masmoudi, A. S.\ Hammami, M.\ Hammami, S.\ Akrout, M.\ Brahem, Y.
YR: 1999
PP: 715-720
BN: ISBN 88-7830-299-6
LA: En
MS: 10 ref.
AA: Biochemistry laboratory and USCR of Mass Spectrometry, Faculty of Medicine,
5019 Monastir, Tunisia
AB: Methomyl was determined in blood from 150 Tunisian farmers using an analytical method which combines acetylcholinesterase testing and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection using a capillary column. Methomyl residue extraction from plasma was performed on Sep-Pak C(18) cartridges. The levels of methomyl in the blood samples from the farmers were very low and should be considered as trace levels (0.026+/-0.006 mg/litre). Some farmers developed muscular osteology problems (76%), neurobehavioural symptoms (47%), dermal irritations (46%) and respiratory diseases (14%). Symptoms in farmers occurred significantly more often during spraying than non-spraying seasons. However, evidence of poisoning and clinical symptoms were only observed in 5% of farmers.
DE: conferences\methomyl\insecticides\acetylcholinesterase\enzymes\enzyme inhibitors\man\safety at work\poisoning
GL: Tunisia


TI: Evaluation of the potential dermal exposure of agricultural workers to pesticides using tracers and whole body dosimetry.
CT: Human and environmental exposure to xenobiotics. Proceedings of the XI Symposium Pesticide Chemistry, Cremona, Italy, 11-15 September, 1999 [edited by Del Re, A. A. M.; Brown, C.; Capri, E.; Errera, G.; Evans, S. P.; Trevisan, M.].
AU: Egea Gonzalez, F. J.\ Castro Cano, M. L.\ Martinez Vidal, J. L.\ Garrido Frenich, A.\ Cruz Marquez, M.\ Almansa Lopez, E.\ Cuadros Rodriguez, L.\ Glass, C. R.\ Mathers, J. J.
YR: 1999
PP: 695-699
BN: ISBN 88-7830-299-6
LA: En
MS: 6 ref.
AA: Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Almeria, 04120 Almeria, Spain.
AB: Pesticide applications were simulated using high volume applications of Sunset Yellow tracer, using Sontara and Tyvek Pro-Tech as sampling media. The amount of tracer contaminating the coveralls as well as its distribution over different parts of the body were determined to investigate the effect of variables such as greenhouse structure, crop type, application equipment and operators. Body dermal exposure (excluding hands) ranged from 8 to 220 ml/h. Hand exposure represented approximately 50% of dermal exposure. Lower legs were also more greatly exposed than other body parts.
DE: pesticides\conferences\safety at work\greenhouses\man


TI: Exposure to pesticides in apple and pear orchards.
CT: Human and environmental exposure to xenobiotics. Proceedings of the XI Symposium Pesticide Chemistry, Cremona, Italy, 11-15 September, 1999 [edited by Del Re, A. A. M.; Brown, C.; Capri, E.; Errera, G.; Evans, S. P.; Trevisan, M.].
AU: Vercruysse, F.\ Steurbaut, W.\ Dejonckheere, W.\ Drieghe, S.
YR: 1999
PP: 639-647
BN: ISBN 88-7830-299-6
LA: En
MS: 18 ref.
AA: Department of Crop Protection Chemistry, University of Gent, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Gent, Belgium.
AB: Occupational exposure to pesticides among apple and pear growers in Belgium was investigated in a series of studies performed in 1997 and 1998. Potential exposure during mixing and loading, application and re-entry was determined. Respiratory exposure was assessed with personal air samplers and potential dermal exposure with gauze patches and cotton gloves. Dislodgeable foliar residues were measured by taking whole leaves. Respiratory exposure during all tasks was very small compared with potential dermal exposure. Respiratory exposure with mixing and loading of wettable powder was 0.003-0.037 mg/kg, 3 to 5 times greater than that from handling liquid or water dispersible granules. Hand exposure during mixing and loading was greater than or similar to total potential exposure during application. The body distribution of the pesticide contamination during application and harvesting was greatest for the hands and the upper legs (forming >70% of all contamination). The potential dermal exposure values are discussed in relation to a re-entry exposure model. Respiratory exposure never exceeded the local acceptable operator exposure levels (AOELs), but during mixing, loading and application, only 13% of dermal exposure values were lower than the AOELs.
DE: pesticides\conferences\apples\Malus pumila\pears\Pyrus\safety at work\orchards\mixing\loading\application\occupational hazards\man
GL: Belgium


TI: Potential operator exposure in southern European greenhouses and orchards.
CT: Human and environmental exposure to xenobiotics. Proceedings of the XI Symposium Pesticide Chemistry, Cremona, Italy, 11-15 September, 1999 [edited by Del Re, A. A. M.; Brown, C.; Capri, E.; Errera, G.; Evans, S. P.; Trevisan, M.].
AU: Glass, C. R.\ Mathers, J. J.\ Martinez Vidal, J. L.\ Egea Gonzalez, F. J.\ Moreira, J. F.\ Machera, K.\ Kapetanakis, E.\ Capri, E.
YR: 1999
PP: 633-638
BN: ISBN 88-7830-299-6
LA: En
MS: 12 ref.
AA: Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ, UK.
AB: During the first 2 years of the EU funded project SMT4-CT96-2048, data were generated under a range of conditions in Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece for indoor horticultural crops and outdoor tree/bush crops. High volume simulated pesticide applications were made using hand held application techniques with aqueous visible tracers. Deposits of tracer were collected on disposable coveralls and cotton gloves to measure potential dermal exposure, using both whole body dosimetry and patch methodologies. Potential inhalation exposure was measured using personal air samplers fitted with IOM heads placed on the lapel of the operator. The data are variable, ranging from <50 ml/h to >2000 ml/h for potential dermal exposure. Crop height and row spacing appear to be 2 key factors influencing dermal exposure levels in greenhouse crops.
DE: conferences\greenhouses\orchards\row spacing\plant height\pesticides\safety at work\orchards\man
GL: Portugal\Spain\Italy\Greece


TI: Assessing risks to operators, bystanders, and workers from the use of plant protection products.
CT: Human and environmental exposure to xenobiotics. Proceedings of the XI Symposium Pesticide Chemistry, Cremona, Italy, 11-15 September, 1999 [edited by Del Re, A. A. M.; Brown, C.; Capri, E.; Errera, G.; Evans, S. P.; Trevisan, M.].
AU: Hamey, P. Y.
YR: 1999
PP: 619-631
BN: ISBN 88-7830-299-6
LA: En
MS: 21 ref.
AA: Mallard House, Kings Pool, 3 Peasholme Green, York, YO1 7PX, UK.
AB: Directive 91/414/EEC requires that risk assessments are conducted on plant protection products and only those products that pose no risk of harm to human health are permitted on the market. Critical components of the risk assessment process are hazard identification, characterisation and exposure assessment. The 91/414/EEC paradigm uses Acceptable Operator Exposure Levels to quantify acceptable risks arising from non-dietary exposures. A first version of a single European operator exposure model is available, although work is continuing on updating this. Work is also under way to establishing a bystander model, and to identify scenarios relevant to worker exposure during re-entry activities with the objective of producing a model for re-entry exposure as well.
DE: conferences\pesticides\risk assessment\safety at work\models
GL: Europe


TI: The myth of safe use of pesticides in developing countries.
FT: El mito del manejo seguro de los plaguicidas en los paises en desarrollo.
AU: Garcia, J. E.
JN: Manejo Integrado de Plagas
YR: 1999
NO: No. 52
PP: 25-41
LA: Es
LS: en
MS: 6 pp. of ref.
AA: Universidad Estatal a Distancia y Escuela de Biologia de la Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica.
AB: In the the last two decades in developing countries, many training activities for the safe use of pesticides have taken place. However, follow up evaluations of some of these training courses has revealed that even though in most cases there has been transfer of knowledge, this has not resulted in a significant change of attitude. It seems that the training activities have become a process of informing of existing dangers and of the safety standards that must be followed, with no real possibilities of changing the daily habits of most workers that use these products. The word safe, widely and repeatedly used in the training courses on pesticide management, is a myth that offers the participants a false sense of security, because there is no practical implementation of safe management as such. The need to make greater efforts towards the dissemination of agricultural practices which reduce or eliminate the use of these products is emphasized.
DE: Developing Countries\pesticides\safety\safety at work\training


TI: Risk of intoxication with sulfluramid in a packing plant of Mirex-S.
AU: Machado-Neto, J. G.\ Queiroz, M. E. C.\ Carvalho, D.\ Bassini, A. J.
JN: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
YR: 1999
VL: 62
NO: 5
PP: 515-519
LA: En
MS: 13 ref.
AA: Department of Crop Protection, School of Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences, Sao Paulo State University, Rodovia Carlos Tonanni, km 5, 14870-000 Jaboticabal, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
AB: A study was conducted to assess the risks of intoxication with sulfluramid for factory workers involved in packing Mirex-S (0.3% sulfluramid) bait bags in Brazil by estimating the safety margin under the existing working conditions. From the results of assessments of skin exposure of different parts of the body (and with respiratory exposure estimated to be 50% of skin exposure) it was concluded that working conditions could be classified as very safe. The margin of safety values were
324.9 and 260.1 μg/day for an 8- and 10-h day, respectively. Hands were the body parts most exposed (25% total dermal exposure), being exposed to a mean of 89.7 μg/day in an 8-h day, followed by the left leg and arms. It is suggested that the granular formulation and the low concentration of sulfluramid in the product and the closed circuit filling machine all contributed to reducing worker exposure.
DE: sulfluramid\safety at work\occupational hazards\working conditions\factory workers\toxicity
GL: Brazil


TI: Chromosomal aberrations and frequency of micronuclei in workers employed in pesticide production.
AU: Garaj-Vrhovac, V.\ Zeljezic, D.
JN: Biologia (Bratislava)
YR: 1999
VL: 54
NO: 6
PP: 707-712
LA: En
MS: 28 ref.
AA: Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Ksaverska cesta 2, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
AB: The possible genotoxic effects of occupational exposure to complex pesticide mixture in workers employed in pesticide production were studied. Two different cytogenetic assays on cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes were used: the analysis of structural chromosomal aberrations and the micronucleus assay. A significantly increased number of chromatid and chromosome breaks as well as the presence of dicentric chromosomes and chromatid exchanges (tetraradii) in exposed subjects regarding to the control subjects (P<0.05). There was also statistically significant difference in frequency and distribution of micronuclei between the two groups examined (exposed and control). These results suggest that occupational exposure to pesticides could be able of causing genome damage in somatic cells.
DE: pesticides\assays\chromosomes\genomes\man\nontarget effects\safety at work