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BNI September 1997 Vol 18. No.3 : Review

Louise Morin, Richard L. Hill, Shinsuke Matayoshi and Manaaki Whenua, Hawaii’s successful biological controlstrategy for mist flower (Ageratina riparia) -can it be transferred to New Zealand? BNI 18(3) Back to BNI Reviews
Abstract : The biological control programme against mist flower in Hawaii is considered one of the most successful undertaken anywhere in the world. Published literature and unpublished reports on the Hawaiian programme, and other biological control programmes against mist flower in Australia and South Africa are reviewed and summarized. Climate data from sites in Hawaii where mist flower infestations have been significantly reduced by biological agents were used to extrapolate optimum conditions for maximum activity of agents. Overall, the most important control agent for mist flower in Hawaii appears to be the fungus Entyloma ageratinae, followed by the gall fly Procecidochares alani and then the plume moth Oidaematophorus beneficus. The feasibility of introducing these successful agents from Hawaii to New Zealand was examined. The annual rainfall in New Zealand is sufficient to support high activity of the agents, especially the fungus. Temperatures should be adequate for half the year, and ideal in summer. A biological control programme could be established for mist flower in New Zealand by introducing the fungus, followed by the gall fly.
Harry C. Evans, Parthenium hysterophorus: a review of its weed status and the possibilities for biological control, BNI 18(3) Back to BNI Reviews
Abstract : The neotropical composite, Parthenium hysterophorus, has achieved major weed status in India and Australia within the past few decades. The reasons for its success as an alien invasive weed are discussed, particularly those relating to allelopathy, together with its effect on crop production, animal husbandry, human health and biodiversity. The actual and potential use of natural enemies as classical biological control agents is reviewed and the work undertaken over the last 20 years on screening and evaluatingboth insect and fungal agents is analysed. It is concluded that successful management of this weed can only be achieved by an integrated approach in which biological control, because of its cost effectiveness, environmental safety and sustainability, could play a significant role.