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BNI June 1998 Vol 19. No.2 : Review

J. G. Charles,  The settlement of fruit crop arthropod pests and their natural enemies in New Zealand: an historical guide to the future, BNI 19(2) Back to BNI Reviews
Abstract :
Fruit crops in New Zealand are infested by 117 arthropod pests, which, in turn, are attacked by 135 arthropod natural enemies. Most pests (100) and natural enemies (116) are exotic, and have arrived during the ca 150 years of European colonization. Ninety-two species of natural enemies have established accidentally, compared with 24 through classical biocontrol introductions. Many fruit crop pests now have diverse, exotic natural enemy guilds, which are becoming increasingly important both economically and ecologically in integrated fruit production (IFP) and organic growing systems. It seems likely that exotic pests and natural enemies of fruit crops will both continue to establish in New Zealand at the long-term average rate of ca seven species per decade. Additionally, the reduced use of broad-spectrum insecticides in fruit crops may result in a greater number of native insects becoming pests. The increasing pest load poses a significant threat both to the livelihood of fruit growers and to the New Zealand economy. Biological control of pests by natural enemies, both native and exotic, and deliberately or accidentally established, will inevitably be further developed as pest management strategies. Ecological studies should aim to provide, on the one hand, the economic sustainability required by fruit growers, and, on the other, the environmental sustainability demanded by conservationists. Ecological analysis of the existing guilds of exotic natural enemies in managed environments may help to predict the potential impact of new natural enemies on non-target species.
Ulrich Kuhlmann and Wiard A. C. M. van der Burgt,  Possibilities for biological control of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, in Central Europe, BNI 19(2) Back to BNI Reviews
Abstract :
The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, was introduced to Europe from North America in the early 1990s. It spread rapidly from its site of introduction in Serbia and is now found over some 400,000 ha of southeastern Europe. The prospects for its classical biological control by introduction of natural enemies, including pathogens, nematodes and insects, from its area of origin are considered, based on a review of natural enemy-Diabrotica associations in the New World. The need for an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy is highlighted, and initial monitoring and management programmes in central Europe are described. Research looking at the possibility of using augmentation and conservation biological control techniques, and behavioural control measures based on attractants and pheromones being conducted at various centres in Europe are also described.