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BNI September 1998 Vol 19. No.3 : Review

Ulrich Kuhlmann 1 , Peter G. Mason 2 and David J. Greathead 3,  Assessment of potential risks for introducing European Peristenus species as biological control agents of native Lygus species in North America: a cooperative approach, BNI 19(3) Back to BNI Reviews
Abstract :
The pest status of Lygus species in North America is outlined. The history of European collections and importations of Peristenus species into North America is described. Current host specificity testing procedures for potential weed and arthropod biocontrol agents are compared. Strategies and methods for host specificity testing of parasitoids are outlined, and discussed in relation to the selection of non-target and native Lygus species for testing with Peristenus parasitoids. European Peristenus species are identified and their life histories outlined. The current status of the taxonomy of the European Peristenus species is discussed, and the importance of accurate identification of these species is noted. Literature on the host range and non-target effects of Peristenus species in the field and laboratory, respectively, is reviewed. It is concluded that cooperative research in Europe and North America is needed to assess the potential risks for the introduction of European Peristenus species for control of Lygus species in North America, and suggested topics are listed.
Godfrey Lubulwa and Susan McMeniman,  ACIAR-supported biological control projects in the South Pacific (1983-1996): an economic assessment, BNI 19(3) Back to BNI Reviews
Abstract :
This paper presents estimates of benefits (to the year 2013) from ten biological control projects the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) supported in the South Pacific between 1983 and 1996. The projects aimed to control the following: (1) fruit-piercing moths (Eudocima fullonia) [8802A]; (2) fruit-piercing moths [9308]; (3) banana skipper (Erionota thrax) [8802C]; (4) breadfruit mealybug (Icerya aegyptiaca) [9111]; (5) banana aphids (Pentalonia nigronervosa) [8802-E]; (6) banana aphids [CS2-92828]; (7) leucaena psyllid (Heteropsylla cubana) [8802D]; (8) Mimosa invisa [8569]; (9) passion fruit white scale (Pseudaulacaspis pentagona) [8718]; and (10) banana weevil borer (Cosmopolites sordidus) [8802B]. The numbers in square brackets are ACIAR project identifiers. Four projects made a quantifiable impact with rates of return ranging from 9% to 81%; three projects made unintended impacts; and three projects made no impact. Overall, ACIAR’s experience with biological control in the South Pacific (1983-1996) has been a success. ACIAR and its partners spent about $A1.87 million on the ten projects which are estimated to generate at least $A25 million. These estimates are over 30 years, in 1990 Australian dollars, and discounted at a real discount rate of 8% p.a. (In December 1994, $A1 = $US0.73, and $A1 = £0.45.)