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BNI September 1999 Vol 20. No.3 : Reviews

Allen C. Cohen, Donald A. Nordlund and Rebecca A. Smith

Mass rearing of entomophagous insects and predaceous mites: are the bottlenecks biological, engineering, economic, or cultural? 
BNI 20(3)
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Commercial mass rearing of entomophagous insects on artificial diets has been a goal for five decades, and economical production of biological control agents is desperately sought because of mounting needs for environmentally safe pest management methods. Yet, there is still no commercial artificial diet-based rearing of entomophages. We consider here the potentials and pitfalls to commercial production of entomophagous arthropods. We discuss endoparasitoids, ectoparasitoids and predators, with emphasis on predators. We also consider the potentials and problems inherent in generalist versus specialist natural enemies both as targets of rearing efforts and in their potential market. Finally, we present a detailed analysis of what have been shown as liabilities and assets of rearing a predator that has been produced for well-over 150 generations and nearly 15 years on artificial diet. We discuss the possible reasons why this research success has not become a commercial success, and suggest ways to speed the development/adoption of artificial diet-based mass rearing systems for biological control agents.

S.T. Murphy and J. LaSalle

Balancing biological contol strategies in the IPM of New World invasive Liriomyza leafminers in field vegetable crops, BNI 20(3)
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Horticultural field crops worldwide are under threat from three New World Liriomyza spp. of leafminers: Liriomyza sativae, Liriomyza trifolii and Liriomyza huidobrensis. These particular species are characterized by their degree of polyphagy and the extent to which they have invaded new geographical areas including large parts of the Old World; yield losses can be considerable. The management of agromyzid leafminers had been extensively researched over the last 30 years or so. Most prominently, the effectiveness of insecticides has been dogged by the effects of indiscriminate use. Indigenous natural enemy communities of Liriomyza spp., particularly parasitoids, are diverse within their native ranges and there is evidence that in pesticide free areas these can regulate leafminers. They can also be diverse in their adventive ranges in continental areas, as invading Liriomyza spp. quickly attract local parasitoids and other polyphagous arthropod predators. An analysis of the literature indicates that agromyzid parasitoids are polyphagous but some may be habitat specific, which explains why they can readily exploit the alien invasive leafminers. The impact of parasitoids and other natural enemies on Liriomyza spp. within their adventive ranges has not been studied but circumstantial evidence suggests that they can have a significant impact a few years after the initial invasion of the leafminer.