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BNI December 2002 Vol 23. No. 4: Review

J. Langewald and P. Neuenschwander.

Challenges in coordinating regional biological control projects in Africa: classical biological control versus augmentative biological control. BNI 23 (4)


Differences in agricultural systems in Africa on one the hand, changes of policy environments on the other hand and the challenges these present for plant protection are discussed. The rapid advance of biological control in Africa in the last 15 years is highlighted, and the advantages of and opportunities for further biological control in this region are considered. Two successful regional projects, which took classical and augmentative biological control approaches, respectively, are used to illustrate how and why requirements for project coordination vary. The first, against cassava mealybug ( Phenacoccus manihoti ), began in the early 1980s and involved the introduction of natural enemies from South America, while the second, against locusts, began some years later, in 1989, and led to the development of a biopesticide, Green Muscleâ„¢, from an African fungal isolate. The differences the timing and approach of the projects made to their implementation are discussed in relation to the role of the African Phytosanitary Council, acceptance of biological control, quarantine issues, accountability, the use of indigenous or exotic natural enemies, environmental impact of natural enemies, the Convention on Biological Diversity, intellectual property rights, commercialization, registration regulations, and product stewardship.