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Biological control of Acrididae with Metarhizium anisopliae.

The abstracts presented below illustrate the use of Metarhizium spp. for the control of Acrididae in recent years.

The LUBILOSA Programme (Lutte Biologique contre des Locusts et Sauteriaux) has developed a product based on the African fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum, for control of desert locusts and other species of locusts and grasshoppers.

LUBILOSA is a collaborative programme between CABI Bioscience, IITA, GTZ, CILSS and a number of national programmes. Managed by CABI Bioscience, LUBILOSA has been supported by a range of development assistance agencies, including CIDA, DFID, NEDA, SDC, USAID, and FAO. LUBILOSA also works with the pest control industry to ensure effective registration and commercialisation of the product.

Over a period of 8 years, the team have taken an R&D concept - the formulation of fungal spores in oil - and turned it into a commercial product for the control of a wide range of locusts and grasshoppers. The mycoinsecticide is effective, economic and has minimal impact upon the environment. From this development have arisen new technologies for the mass production and storage of fungal pathogens, their formulation as ultra-low-volume sprays for ground and aerial application, and recommendations for their effective use as pest control agents which, unlike agrochemicals, persist in the environment to form a part of the ecology of the pest.

The LUBILOSA team has expertise in strain isolation, identification, characterisation and selection, its production, storage, formulation, application, registration and commercialisation. All of these steps are essential to ensure that a biopesticide is effective and commercially viable, meeting the needs and standards of all stakeholders. The team has demonstrated that the oil-based formulation of spores, applied at rates of 0.5 litres per hectare, can be used over large areas to control locusts and grasshoppers in the Sahel, East Africa and in South Africa.

LUBILOSA has developed high quality production procedures and standards for the fungus. It has carried out economic studies of low input production and marketing systems to assess the optimal means of commercialisation, and has worked in partnership with industrial companies to ensure the effective licensing and production of the product, which is expected to be commercially available from production sites in south and west Africa, during 1998.

LUBILOSA represents a new model for the co-operative development of environmentally sound pest control technologies at a small fraction of the cost of developing new active agrochemical molecules.

This unique project has demonstrated the value of international, multi-disciplinary teamwork. The technologies and systems developed under the LUBILOSA programme have wide application in the development of other biopesticides for Africa.

For further details on the LUBILOSA Programme, please contact David Dent (

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Information is also available on:

TI: Pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae on the migratory locust, Rhammatocerus schistocercoides Rehn, in Colombia.
FT: Patogenicidad de Metarhizium anisopliae en la langosta migratoria, Rhammatocerus schistocercoides Rehn, en Colombia.
AU: Bustillo P., A. E.\ Lopez N., J. C.\ Devia, H.
JN: Revista Colombiana de Entomologia
YR: 1997
VL: 23
NO: 1/2
PP: 39-43
LA: Es
LS: en
MS: 26 ref.
AA: Centro Nacional de Investigaciones de Cafe, CENICAFE, Chinchina, Apartado Aereo 2427 Manizales, Caldas, Colombia.
AB: In Los Llanos Orientales (Arauca, Casanare, Guaviare, Meta, Vichada), Colombia, a severe outbreak of Rhammatocerus schistocercoides has
been registered since 1993 in pastures. A bioassay was developed to select highly virulent isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae to control R. schistocercoides. The isolates evaluated were Ma9218 from Teleogryllus commodus, isolated in Australia, and Ma9236 from an unknown host. Isolates were cultivated in sabouraud dextrose agar + lactic acid at 0.37%. Fourth-instar larvae were infected by submerging them for 30 seconds in a suspension containing 1×10(7) spores/ml. The greatest daily mortality occurred on the 5th day (20% for Ma9218 and 28% for Ma9236). Significant differences were found after 9 days with 68 and 84% mortality for Ma9218 and Ma9236, respectively.
DE: Colombia\locusts\Metarhizium\Metarhizium anisopliae\Acrididae\Australia\bioassays\entomopathogens\Gryllidae\lactic acid\outbreaks\pastures\insect control\insect pests\plant pests\Teleogryllus commodus\Rhammatocerus schistocercoides
GL: Colombia\Australia
AN: 0E08610421

TI: Pulling the wind teeth. Biological locust control in Africa.
FT: Dem Wind die Zahne ziehen. Biologische Heuschreckenbekampfung in Afrika.
AU: Welling, M.\ Stephan, D.
JN: Forschungs-Report, Ernahrung Landwirtschaft Forsten
YR: 1998
NO: No. 1
PP: 12-17
LA: De
AB: 'Teeth of the wind' as locusts are called in some countries are a serious problem in Africa. The use of the entomogenous fungus Metarhizium anisopliae as a biological control agent for locusts is described.
DE: Metarhizium anisopliae\Acrididae\biological control\entomogenous fungi\Africa
AN: 0E08610283\7E01902795

TI: Molecular characterization of isolates of Metarhizium from locusts and grasshoppers.
AU: Bridge, P. D.\ Prior, C.\ Sagbohan, J.\ Lomer, C. J.\ Carey, M.\ Buddie, A.
JN: Biodiversity and Conservation
YR: 1997
VL: 6
NO: 2
PP: 177-189
LA: En
MS: 32 ref.
AA: International Mycological Institute, Bakeham Lane, Surrey TW20 9TY, UK.
AB: The relationships between 30 strains of Metarhizium were investigated by isoenzyme analysis, PCR-RAPDs, and proteinase production. The strains included representatives of M. anisopliae, M. flavoviride var. flavoviride and M. flavoviride var. minus. Thirteen isolates conforming to M. flavoviride from acridid hosts and pathogenic to locusts and grasshoppers were shown to be a single, distinctive genotype with a pan-tropical distribution. In addition, the separation of M. flavoviride var. minus as a host specific taxon distinct from European isolates of M. flavoviride was also supported. The possibility of coevolution within some insect pathogenic populations is discussed.
DE: Metarhizium anisopliae\Metarhizium flavoviride var. flavoviride\Metarhizium flavoviride var. minus\Acrididae\Orthoptera\natural enemies\biological control
agents\entomopathogens\pathogens\hosts\microbial pesticides\isoenzymes\genotypes\coevolution
AN: 7E01902020

TI: Biological control of the black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus (Walker) (Orthoptera: Gryllidae), using the fungal pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes).
AU: Milner, R. J.\ Miller, L.\ Lutton, G. G.\ Driver, F.
JN: Plant Protection Quarterly
YR: 1996
VL: 11
NO: 1
PP: 9-13
LA: En
MS: 16 ref.
AA: CSIRO, Division of Entomology, GPO Box 1700, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.
AB: The hyphomycete fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, is a natural pathogen of Teleogryllus commodus, a serious pest of pastures, in Victoria, Australia. Comparison of 12 isolates, using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPDs), from this insect collected in Victoria showed that they were all very similar genetically but quite distinct from the group 3 M. flavoviride isolates from Acrididae and locusts. Screening bioassays showed that isolates from T. commodus were more virulent for this pest than isolates from other sources. One of these isolates (FI1099) was selected for use in field trials. An oil formulation of conidia of FI1099 was tested either as a ultra-low volume (ULV) spray or in a high volume oil/water emulsion at two sites in Victoria. At Warrambeen, a dose of 2 × 10(13) conidia per hectare gave a 30-40% reduction in the gryllid population after 21 days compared with 80% control in the malathion plots. At Turkeith, the higher dose of 4 × 10(13) conidia per hectare gave 60-70% control while the malathion again gave about 80% control. These results were promising and show that M. anisopliae has the potential to control T. commodus when applied as an oil-based mycoinsecticide.
DE: biological control agents\insect pests\Acrididae\Locusta\Metarhizium flavoviride\bioassays\insect control\natural enemies\malathion\insecticides\chemical control\microbial pesticides\Teleogryllus commodus\biological control\arthropods\control\Metarhizium anisopliae\control\pastures\entomogenous fungi\Australia\Victoria\biological control\control\against\evaluation
GL: Australia\Victoria
AN: 0E08407335\7E01701689

TI: Viability and virulence of blastospores of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch.) Sorokin after storage in various liquids at different temperatures.
AU: Kleespies, R. G.\ Zimmerman, G.
JN: Biocontrol Science and Technology
YR: 1994
VL: 4
NO: 3
PP: 309-319
LA: En
MS: 23 ref.
AA: Federal Biological Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Institute for Biological Control, Heinrichstrasse 243, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany.
AB: Blastospores of 3 strains of Metarhizium anisopliae were stored in 18 liquids at 4, 20 and 35°C for 18 weeks, 12 weeks or 9 days, resp. Viability was quantified by determination of their germination. In bioassays, the virulence of stored blastospores was studied using adults and 3rd-instar larvae of Locusta [migratoria] migratorioides and compared to those of freshly produced blastospores and conidia. Generally, there was considerable variability in the viability of blastospores, depending on the fungal strain and the liquids used. Blastospores survived best at 4°C in 10% hydroxyethyl starch; for example, germination of M. anisopliae strain 97 still amounted to more than 80% after storage for 18 weeks. Other suitable liquids were deionized water, 25% Ringer's solution and 1% sodium alginate. The viability of blastospores stored at 20°C was considerably shorter than at 4°C. During storage for 12 weeks at20°C the best protective liquids for M. anisopliae strain 97 were 25% Ringer's solution (43% germination), deionized water (23%) and 10% hydroxyethyl starch (23%). At 35°C, 45% of M. anisopliae strain 97 blastospores still germinated after storage for 7 days in 25% glycerol. The bioassays revealed that the virulence of blastospores after storage was comparable to that of fresh ones and even better than that of fresh conidia. In general, the LT50 was
about 4-6 days at an alternating day/night temperature of 28/20°C.
DE: temperature\insect pests\Acrididae\Orthoptera\microbial pesticides\insecticides\Locusta migratoria migratorioides\Metarhizium anisopliae\hosts\pathogens\biology\environmental factors\entomogenous fungi\pathogenicity
AN: 0E08307470\7E01602113

TI: The effect of destruxins on the structure and function of insect [Schistocerca gregaria] Malpighian tubules.
AU: James, P. J.\ Charnley, A. K.\ Reynolds, S. E.
JN: Bulletin OILB/SROP
YR: 1994
VL: 17
NO: 3
PP: 218-221
LA: En
MS: 8 ref.
AA: School of Biological Sciences, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK.
DE: Acrididae\Orthoptera\insect pests\toxins\Metarhizium anisopliae\entomogenous fungi\conferences\Insect Pathogens and Insect Parasitic Nematodes\Schistocerca gregaria\physiology\excretory system
AN: 0E08307071

TI: Trehalases produced by the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae and their potential role in parasitism.
AU: Joshi, L.\ Seyoum, E.\ Samuels, R. I.\ Moore, D.\ Charnley, A. K.
JN: Bulletin OILB/SROP
YR: 1994
VL: 17
NO: 3
PP: 197-200
LA: En
MS: 5 ref.
AA: School of Biological Sciences, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK.
AB: An exocellular and an endocellular trehalase were isolated from Metarhizium anisopliae. The flight activity of adults of Schistocerca gregaria infected with M. flavoviride was reduced. This was at least partly due to reduced blood trehalose levels in infected insects, as injection of a trehalose supplement increased
the flight performance of infected insects. This paper was presented at the 4th general meeting of the IOBC/WPRS Working Group 'Insect Pathogens and Insect Parasitic Nematodes' held in Zurich, Switzerland, on 5-9 September 1993.
DE: trehalase\pathogens\Acrididae\Orthoptera\insect pests\locusts\conferences\Insect Pathogens and Insect Parasitic Nematodes\entomogenous fungi\Metarhizium\Metarhizium anisopliae\biochemistry\enzymes\Schistocerca gregaria\Metarhizium flavoviride\hosts\biochemistry
AN: 0E08307424

TI: Basic proteases of entomopathogenic fungi differ in their adsorption properties to insect cuticle.
AU: Bidochkha, M. J.\ Khachatourians, G. G.
JN: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
YR: 1994
VL: 64
NO: 1
PP: 26-32
LA: En
MS: 22 ref.
AA: Bioinsecticide Research Laboratory, Department of Applied Microbiology and Food Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Sask., S7N 0W0,
AB: The hydrolysis of cuticle proteins by and the in vitro adsorption of Metarhizium anisopliae, Verticillium lecanii and Beauveria bassiana proteases [proteinases] onto insect cuticle were investigated. These fungi produced several proteinases during growth in liquid media containing 1% (w/v) ground cuticle from Melanoplus
sanguinipes, the most basic of these proteinases being adsorbed onto cuticle. Maximum proteinase adsorption occurred in a broad pH range from 4 to 7 and adsorption was also time dependent, with maximum adsorption occurring within 1 h. Dissociation of up to 50% of the adsorbed proteinase from the cuticle could be achieved with 10 mM potassium phosphate (pH 7) but not with distilled water. Proteinase adsorption was disrupted by lysine and glutamic acid, while proline, alanine, and tyrosine had no effect. A decrease of proteinase adsorption followed modification of cuticle protein carboxyl groups by esterification or by carboxamidation. Acetylation of the cuticle tyrosine hydroxyl groups resulted in decreased adsorption of M. anisopliae and V. lecanii proteinase but not B. bassiana proteinase. Phenylglyoxylation masked the amino groups with carboxyl groups and this resulted in increased adsorption. An increase in proteinase adsorption onto chemically modified cuticles was not necessarily correlated with increased hydrolysis. Results suggested that the proteinases produced by V. lecanii and M. anisopliae were similar in their adsorption properties. A carboxyl group was required by all proteinases for adsorption but M. anisopliae and V. lecanii proteinases also required an unsubstituted hydroxyl group with a carboxyl group for maximum adsorption.
DE: Orthoptera\Acrididae\insect pests\plant pests\microbial pesticides\biological control agents\proteinases\entomogenous fungi\Metarhizium anisopliae\Verticillium lecanii\Beauveria bassiana\Melanoplus sanguinipes\hosts\pathogens\biochemistry\enzymes\insects\cuticle
AN: 0E08304179\0J08302314\7E01601394

TI: Protein hydrolysis in grasshopper cuticles by entomopathogenic fungal extracellular proteases.
AU: Bidochka, M. J.\ Khachatourians, G. G.
JN: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
YR: 1994
VL: 63
NO: 1
PP: 7-13
LA: En
MS: 23 ref.
AA: Bioinsecticide Research Laboratory, Department of Applied Microbiology and Food Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan,
S7N 0W0, Canada.
AB: Extracellular protease-containing culture supernatants of Beauveria bassiana or Metarhizium anisopliae, or purified extracellular B. bassiana protease were applied to unsclerotized cuticle from Melanoplus sanguinipes. Treatment of the various cuticles with the culture supernatants resulted in a loss in cuticle dry weight of
41.1 and 83.0% in the forewing and hindwing, resp. Addition of a protease inhibitor, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), to the culture supernatants, resulted in a substantial retention of cuticle dry weight after treatment. In untreated cuticles or cuticles treated with B. bassiana or M. anisopliae culture supernatants or purified B. bassiana protease the urea-soluble proteins were characterized by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. An initial decrease in the number of acidic proteins was observed in the 2D gels from cuticles previously treated with fungal culture supernatants or purified B. bassiana protease. High-molecular-weight (>31 kDa) basic cuticular proteins were also susceptible to degradation by proteases. Only minor qualitative changes in cuticular protein 2D patterns followed addition of PMSF to the B. bassiana or M. anisopliae supernatants prior to incubation with the cuticle. The action of these entomopathogenic fungal proteases towards acidic cuticular proteins,and to a lesser extent the high-molecular basic proteins, is discussed.
DE: Orthoptera\Acrididae\insect pests\plant pests\cuticle\proteinase inhibitors\entomopathogens\natural enemies\biological control agents\Melanoplus sanguinipes\Beauveria bassiana\Metarhizium anisopliae\hosts\pathogens\entomogenous fungi\pathogens\enzymes\pathogens
AN: 0E08304145\7E01601385

TI: Partial characterization of specific inducers of a cuticle-degrading protease from the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae.
AU: Paterson, I. C.\ Charnley, A. K.\ Cooper, R. M.\ Clarkson, J. M.
JN: Microbiology (Reading)
YR: 1994
VL: 140
NO: 11
PP: 3153-3159
LA: En
MS: 33 ref.
AA: Microbial Pathogenicity Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK.
AB: The insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae produces several extracellular cuticle-degrading proteinases and evidence is consistent with one of these, PR1, a chymoelastase, being a determinant of pathogenicity. It was established from laboratory studies that an enzymatically released proteinaceous component(s)
of insect (Schistocerca gregaria) cuticle was capable of inducing PR1 (based on the appearance of extracellular activity).
DE: natural enemies\entomopathogens\cuticle\proteinases\elastase\plant pests\insect pests\Acrididae\Orthoptera\entomogenous fungi\Metarhizium anisopliae\Schistocerca gregaria\biochemistry\enzymes\chymoelastase
AN: 0E08303277\7E01601381\0J08307039

TI: Susceptibility of the Australian plague locust Chortoicetes terminifera, and the wingless grasshopper, Phaulacridium vittatum, to the fungi Metarhizium spp.
AU: Milner, R. J.\ Prior, C.
JN: Biological Control
YR: 1994
VL: 4
NO: 2
PP: 132-137
LA: En
MS: 19 ref.
AA: CSIRO Division of Entomology, GPO Box 17, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.
AB: Fourth-instar nymphs of Chortoicetes terminifera and 4th- and 5th-instar nymphs of Phaulacridium vittatum were inoculated topically with 7500 conidia/insect in 0.2 µl groundnut oil with each of 5 isolates of Metarhizium spp. Three isolates of M. flavoviride from acridids were more virulent than 2 of M. anisopliae isolated from Isoptera nests in Australia and soil in Burma [Myanmar]. Similar differences were observed with 5th-instar nymphs of C. terminifera and 750 conidia/insect. At the higher dose, the LT50 for FI985 (from an Australian acridid) was 4.3 days against C. terminifera at 29°C and 5.4 days for P. vittatum at 26°C. The 2 other isolates of M. flavoviride tested had similar pathogenicity. Moulting within 24 h of treatment had no effect on subsequent
DE: Orthoptera\insect pests\microbial pesticides\pathogenicity\natural enemies\Myanmar\Isoptera\Australia\entomogenous fungi\Metarhizium\Chortoicetes terminifera\Phaulacridium vittatum\Metarhizium flavoviride\Metarhizium anisopliae\hosts\Acrididae\pathogens
AN: 0E08303257\7E01601225

TI: Studies on the biological control of African locusts: Locusta migratoria and Schistocerca gregaria.
FT: Untersuchungen zur biologischen Bekampfung Afrikanischer Heuschrecken: Locusta migratoria und Schistocerca gregaria.
AU: Kleespies, R.\ Zimmermann, G.\ Huger, A. M.
JN: Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Allgemeine und Angewandte Entomologie
YR: 1993
VL: 8
NO: 4-6
PP: 839-840
LA: De
AA: Institut fur Biologischen Pflanzenschutz, BBA fur Land- und Forstwirtschaft, D-6100 Darmstadt, Germany.
AB: Following an outbreak of Locusta migratoria, Schistocerca gregaria and other acridids in Africa in 1985-88, investigations were begun in Germany on the biological control of the 2 principal species involved. A brief report on some of these studies is presented, with special reference to laboratory studies on pathogens in soil samples from Africa as potential microbial pesticides. Three isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae were shown to cause up to 100% mortality of 3rd-instar nymphs of L. migratoria in 5-7 days.
DE: insect pests\Orthoptera\natural enemies\microbial pesticides\biological control\locusts\conferences\German Society for General and Applied Entomology\Africa\Schistocerca gregaria\Locusta migratoria\Acrididae\pathogens\Metarhizium anisopliae\hosts\entomogenous fungi
GL: Africa
AN: 0E08301282\7E01600007

TI: Inhibition of desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) Malpighian tubule fluid secretion by destruxins, cyclic peptide toxins from the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae.
AU: James, P. J.\ Kershaw, M. J.\ Reynolds, S. E.\ Charnley, A. K.
JN: Journal of Insect Physiology
YR: 1993
VL: 39
NO: 9
PP: 797-804
LA: En
MS: 24 ref.
AA: School of Biological Sciences, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK.
AB: Destruxins are cyclic peptide lactone toxins isolated from the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae. Destruxins A, A(2), B and E all inhibited fluid secretion in vitro by Malpighian tubules of Schistocerca gregaria. The inhibition was dose-dependent; the IC50 for destruxin A was 23 µM. Destruxins A2), B and E were similar to destruxin A in their effectiveness on fluid secretion at a concn of 16 µM. Following a brief exposure to destruxin A in vitro, the rate of fluid secretion recovered significantly but incompletely. Fluid secretion was increased by 2.2-times the base rate when Malpighian tubules were exposed to synthetic L. migratoria diuretic peptide. This stimulation of fluid secretion was completely inhibited by destruxin A. Fluid secretion by Malpighian tubules was stimulated by the intracellular 2nd messenger c-AMP in the presence of the c-AMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). This stimulation was also completely inhibited by destruxin A. The Malpighian tubules from S. gregaria continued to secrete fluid in calcium-free conditions (calcium free saline with added EGTA). Destruxin A inhibited fluid secretion equally well in the absence or presence of external calcium. The calcium channel blocker cadmium chloride did not prevent the inhibition of fluid secretion by destruxin A, nor did the anion channel blocker 4-acetamido-4'-isothio-cyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid. It is suggested that the inhibition of Malpighian tubule fluid secretion in S. gregaria involves a cellular mechanism beyond the level of control by calcium or c-AMP.
DE: insect pests\locusts\Acrididae\Orthoptera\Malpighian tubules\natural enemies\c-amp\secretions\mycotoxins\microbial pesticides\fungal insecticides\insecticides\pesticides\pathogens\entomogenous fungi\Metarhizium anisopliae\destruxins\destruxin A\destruxin A2\destruxin B\destruxin C\effects\Schistocerca gregaria\extracts\toxins\peptides\physiology\excretory system\pathogenicity\toxins
AN: 0E08200094\7E01500727

TI: Control of Schistocerca gregaria adults in the area of new preparations and methods.
FT: Lutte contre les Schistocerca gregaria adultes au moyen de nouvelles preparations et methodes.
AU: Wilps, H.\ Nasseh, O.\ Krall, S.\ Kabo, O.
JN: Sahel PV Info
YR: 1992
NO: No. 44
PP: 7-18
LA: Fr
AA: Forstzoologisches Institut, 7801, Stegen-Wittental, Germany.
AB: In cage experiments, the effects of Teflubenzuron/Nomolt [teflubenzuron], of extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia volkensii and of spores of Metarhizium flavoviride [M. flavoviride] and Beauveria bassiana on adults of Schistocerca gregaria were investigated. Teflubenzuron caused about 70% mortality. The other treatments caused 40-100% mortality. Of the survivors of the various treatments, flight was reduced by 40-70% and the provision of energy for musculature was
reduced to 30-50% of controls.
DE: Insect pests\ Acrididae\ Orthoptera\ Microbial pesticides\ Botanical insecticides\ Pesticidal plants\ Plant extracts\ Natural enemies\ Physiology\ Flight\ Behaviour\Schistocerca gregaria\insecticides\effects\Teflubenzuron\Azadirachta indica\extracts\Melia volkensii\Metarhizium flavoviride\ hosts\Beauveria bassiana\Entomogenous fungi\Metarhizium anisopliae\pathogens\Broadleaves\Insecticidal properties\neem extracts\ Schistocerca gregaria\Azadirachta indica\Melia volkensii\ plant extracts\Schistocerca gregaria\biological control agents\evaluation\Biological control\arthropods\Metarhizium flavoviride\against\Beauveria bassiana
AN: 0E08107581\7Y00601659\7E01401863

TI: Locust control. Prevention, the only true remedy.
FT: Lutte anti-acridienne. La prevention, seul veritable remede.
JN: Afrique Agriculture
YR: 1992
VL: 17
NO: 198
PP: 22-23
LA: Fr
AB: The advantages of controlling migratory locusts [Schistocerca gregaria] before the populations build up into uncontrollable swarms are stressed. It is observed that the monitoring of locust populations is an integral part of this control, but is often difficult. New methods of monitoring and prediction, using remote detection
combined with information processed by an bio-ecomodel, are hoped to help in this. The prospects for the use of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium flavoviride as biological control agents are discussed.
DE: Microbial pesticides\ Insecticides\ Natural enemies\ Insect pests\ Locusts\ Acrididae\ Orthoptera\ Monitoring\ Models\ Biological control agents\Schistocerca gregaria\forecasting\ Entomogenous fungi\Beauveria bassiana\Metarhizium flavoviride\ pathogens\hosts\Metarhizium anisopliae\ Schistocerca gregaria\biological control agents\evaluation\ Biological control\arthropods\Beauveria bassiana\against\ Metarhizium anisopliae
AN: 0E08103342\7E01401233

TI: Synergism between entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium spp., and the benzoylphenyl urea insecticide, teflubenzuron, against the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria.
CT: Proceedings, Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases, 1992 Brighton, November 23-26, 1992.
AU: Joshi, L.\ Charnley, A. K.\ Arnold, G.\ Brain, P.\ Bateman, R. P.
YR: 1992
PP: 369-374
LA: En
MS: 10 ref.
AA: School of Biological Sciences, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, Avon, BA2 7AY, UK.
AB: In single dose bioassays, Metarhizium anisopliae (applied in an aqueous solution of Tween 80) and the benzoylphenyl urea insecticide teflubenzuron (applied in acetone) acted synergistically to kill 3rd-instar Schistocerca gregaria. Teflubenzuron (0.003 µg/µl) and M. anisopliae (3 × 10(5)
conidia/ml), individually caused 1 and 17, resp., out of 25 S. gregaria to die. A combined treatment resulted in the death of 24 out of 25 locusts. Experiments involving several doses of both fungus and insecticide did not demonstrate the same effect, but multidose assays with the more specific pathogen M. flavoviride
isolate IMI 330184 resulted in significant synergy when the agents were applied as a combined formulation in mineral oil. This paper was presented at a conference on pests and diseases of crops held in Brighton, UK, on 23-26 November 1992.
DE: Synergists\ Insect pests\ Locusts\ Acrididae\ Orthoptera\ Pathogens\ Natural enemies\ Microbial pesticides\ Pesticides\ Fungal insecticides\Conferences\Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases\Schistocerca gregaria\ pathogens\Metarhizium anisopliae\hosts\Metarhizium flavoviride\Entomogenous fungi\insecticides\effects\ Teflubenzuron\interactions\Metarhizium\ Conferences\Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and
Diseases\Schistocerca gregaria\Metarhizium\pathogenicity\ Metarhizium anisopliae\Metarhizium flavoviride\teflubenzuron\ synergism
AN: 0E08103340\7E01401571

TI: New hosts for the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin and Verticillium lecanii (Zimmerman) Viegas, in Argentina.
FT: Nuevos hospedadores para los hongos entomopatogenos Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin y Verticillium lecanii (Zimmerman) Viegas, en la Republica Argentina.
AU: Lopez Lastra, C.
JN: Revista de la Sociedad Entomologica Argentina
YR: 1988, publ. 1989
VL: 47
NO: 1-4
PP: 94
LA: Es
AA: CEPAVE, UNLP, Argentina.
AB: Dichroplus elongatus, Acheta assimilis [Gryllus assimilis], Noecuttilla claraziana [Neocurtilla claraziana] and Aedes crinifer are recorded as hosts for Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae in Argentina.
DE: Orthoptera\ Acrididae\ Gryllotalpidae\ Gryllidae\ Diptera\ Culicidae\ Scarabaeidae\ Coleoptera\ Natural enemies\ Dichroplus elongatus\Argentina\GRYLLUS ASSIMILIS\Neocurtilla claraziana\insect pests\pathogens\Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae\hosts\Entomogenous fungi\Verticillium lecanii\Metarhizium anisopliae\ Dichroplus elongatus\Argentina\GRYLLUS ASSIMILIS\Neocurtilla claraziana\Aedes crinifer\Verticillium lecanii\Metarhizium anisopliae var.
anisopliae\entomogenous fungi\pathogens\ hosts\insect pests\Entomopathogens\Aedes crinifer\entomogenous fungi\Argentina\Metarhizium anisopliae\insects\Verticillium lecanii
GL: Argentina
AN: 0E08105572\7E01401225\0J08202306

TI: Production of blastospores by three strains of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch.) Sorokin in submerged culture.
AU: Kleespies, R. G.\ Zimmermann, G.
JN: Biocontrol Science and Technology
YR: 1992
VL: 2
NO: 2
PP: 127-135
LA: En
MS: 17 ref.
AA: Federal Biological Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Institute for Biological Control, Heinrichstr. 243, 6100 Darmstadt, Germany.
AB: Studies on blastospore production in different liquid media were conducted with three strains of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (M. a.), a biological control agent of Schistocerca gregaria and Locusta migratoria migratoria. The strains were derived from various countries (M. a. 43, Austria; M. a. 57, Brazil; M. a. 97, Philippines). Variation of 6 fermentation parameters showed that the three strains differed in their growth pattern and physiology. In standard medium and in all tests, strain 57 produced the highest number of blastospores, while mycelial pellets were never formed. The preferred carbohydrates were glucose and fructose. Blastospore production of strain 43 was increased by growth at 30°C, at a pH of 6.5 or by addition of 5% PEG 200 (polyethyleneglycol). However, it was impaired by different concn of Tween 80 or higher concn of PEG 200. Strain 97 produced most blastospores at 30°C, preferring basic as well as acid media. Blastospore production was increased by the addition of 5% PEG 200 or 0.4-1.2% Tween 80. PEG 200 suppressed pellet formation effectively.
DE: natural enemies\ insect pests\ Orthoptera\ biological control agents\Acrididae \ Locusta migratoria migratoria\Schistocerca gregaria\Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae\hosts \ pathogens\entomogenous fungi\physiology\ Metarhizium anisopliae\culture techniques\blastospores
AN: 0E08102339\0J08104261

TI: Mechanisms of fungal pathogenesis in insects with particular reference to locusts.
CT: Biological control of locusts and grasshoppers: proceedings of a workshop held at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Cotonou, Republic of Benin, 29 April-1 May 1991.
AU: Charnley, A. K.
YR: 1992
PP: 181-190
BN: ISBN 0-85198-779-6
LA: En
MS: 25 ref.
AA: School of Biological Sciences, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, Avon, BA2 7AY, UK.
AB: The processes of invasion, host response and cause of death in deuteromycete infections in insects are reviewed briefly, with particular reference to the interaction between Metarhizium anisopliae and Schistocerca gregaria. It is suggested that control of appressorium formation is related to host specificity and that
the cuticle-degrading endoproteinase has an important role in host invasion. Variation in enzyme charge, and thus ability to bind to and degrade different insect cuticles, may influence isolate virulence. When fungal chitinase is slow to appear, cuticle-chitin may present a significant barrier to host penetration. Thus
acylurea insecticides, which interfere with chitin synthesis in insects, can act synergistically with fungal pathogens. Antifungal phenols contribute to the gut barrier to infection in S. gregaria and possibly other Orthoptera. Formulation of fungal conidia to reduce the effectiveness of the phenols may promote infection
through the gut. Blood- borne cellular defences of an insect are often ineffective against virulent fungal pathogens. The causes of death are probably complex and have not been defined adequately. Secondary metabolites, like destruxins, are implicated in some cases. Timing and titre of production of such compounds may be
amenable to selection and/or manipulation.
DE: Acrididae\ Orthoptera\ insect pests\ natural enemies\ Schistocerca gregaria\Metarhizium anisopliae\hosts \ pathogens\conferences\Biological control of locusts and grasshoppers\ entomogenous fungi\biology
AN: 0E08005055

TI: Fungal agents for biocontrol.
CT: Biological control of locusts and grasshoppers: proceedings of a workshop held at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Cotonou, Republic of Benin, 29 April-1 May 1991.
AU: Goettel, M. S.
YR: 1992
PP: 122-132
BN: ISBN 0-85198-779-6
LA: En
MS: 52 ref.
AA: Agriculture Canada, Lethbridge Research Station, PO Box 3000 Main, Lethbridge, Alta. T1J 4B1, Canada.
AB: A brief review of the attributes and limitations of fungi as potential microbial control agents and of the several species of fungi commonly associated with grasshoppers are presented. Unlike most other insect pathogens which must be ingested in order to invade their host, fungi generally invade via the external cuticle. As with other biological control agents, fungi are limited by an array of biotic and abiotic factors. Although more than 7000 species of entomopathogenic fungi occur worldwide, only a few affect grasshoppers, the most common being Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and Entomophaga grylli. It is concluded that
there is an urgent need to search for and isolate fungal pathogens.
DE: microbial pesticides\ Orthoptera\ insect pests\ natural enemies\ pathogens\entomogenous fungi\Beauveria bassiana\ Entomophaga grylli\Metarhizium anisopliae\conferences\ Biological control of locusts and grasshoppers\Acrididae\ control\biological control\arthropods
AN: 0E08005052

TI: Direct in vitro and in vivo monitoring of destruxins metabolism in insects using internal surface reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. I. Behaviour of E destruxin in locusts.
AU: Cherton, J. C.\ Lange, C.\ Mulheim, C.\ Pais, M.\ Vey, A.
JN: Journal of Chromatography, Biomedical Applications
YR: 1991
VL: 566
NO: 2
PP: 511-524
LA: En
MS: 25 ref.
AA: Laboratoire de Chimie Organique Structurale, CNRS URA 455, Universite P et M Curie, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France.
AB: The entomogenous fungus Metarhizium anisopliae produces cyclodepsipeptides named destruxins. A slight amount of E destruxin was shown to be hydrated into E-diol destruxin in the haemolymph of adult males of Locusta migratoria. The rest of the toxin was recovered unchanged in the fat body, pericardial tissues and Malpighian tubules, and some further E-diol destruxin formation occurred in these organs. Because E-diol destruxin is only weakly toxic, this appears to be a
detoxification process.
DE: insect pests\ natural enemies\ Orthoptera\ Acrididae\ locusts\ Locusta migratoria\Metarhizium anisopliae\hosts \ pathogens\ entomogenous fungi\physiology\detoxification
AN: 0E08004128

TI: Characterization of chitinase and chitobiase produced by the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae.
AU: St. Leger, R. J.\ Cooper, R. M.\ Charnley, A. K.
JN: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
YR: 1991
VL: 58
NO: 3
PP: 415-426
LA: En
MS: 43 ref.
AA: School of Biological Sciences, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 2AY, UK.
AB: Extracellular fluids from the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae grown on chitin as the sole carbon source contained distinct chitinase (pH optimum 5, MW 110 kDa, pI 6.4) activities. Chitinase activity was stabilized against extremes of pH and temperature by the presence of its chitin substrate. Chitinase fractions eluted from a Sephadex column had activity against chitosan as well as cuticle chitin from the acridid Locusta migratoria, crystalline chitin, and colloidial chitin. Products of enzymolysis were analyzed using descending paper chromatography. Chitinase had no activity against chitobiose, only trace activity against chitotriose, but preferentially cleaved the middle bond of chitotetraose releasing chitobiose. N-Acetyglucosamine was the major (vs colloidal chitin) or only (vs crystalline chitin) product detected following chitin hydrolysis. The chitobiase (also called N-acetyl-ß-glucosaminidase) possessed simple glycosidase activity against
p-nitrophyenyl-acetylglucosaminide and hydrolyzed di-, tri- and tetrasaccharides to N-acetylglucosamine. Chitobiase activity was significantly inhibited by its reaction product, N-acetylglucosamine. The mechanism of action of chitinolytic enzymes is discussed.
DE: Insect pests\ Locusts\ Acrididae\ Orthoptera\ Locusta migratoria\ Chitin\ Cuticle\ N-acetylglucosamine\ Chitinase\ PH\ Temperature\ N-acetyl-betaglucoseaminidase\ Glycosidases\ Entomogenous fungi\Metarhizium anisopliae\biochemistry\enzymes\ Chitobiase\ Deuteromycotina\Metarhizium anisopliae\ biochemistry\chitinase
AN: 0E08005973\0J08105698

TI: Kinetics of the digestion of insect cuticles by a protease (Pr1) from Metarhizium anisopliae
AU: St. Leger, R. J.\ Charnley, A. K.\ Cooper, R. M.
JN: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
YR: 1991
VL: 57
NO: 1
PP: 146-147
LA: En
AA: Department of Crop Protection, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, Avon, UK.
AB: The complex kinetics of protease (Pr1) action on insect cuticle were investigated in this study. Purified Pr1 from Metarhizium anisopliae was incubated at room temperature in suspensions of locust (Schistocerca gregaria) cuticle. It was concluded that variations in K(m) may derive from the number of negatively
charged Pr1-binding sites, previously found to be a determinant of cuticle degradation.
DE: Proteinases\ Kinetics\ Cuticle\ Orthoptera\ Acrididae\ Insect pests\Metarhizium anisopliae\enzymes\Schistocerca gregaria\ pathogens\hosts\Entomogenous fungi\ Metarhizium anisopliae\enzymes\Schistocerca gregaria\ pathogens\hosts\ Metarhizium anisopliae\cuticle\degradation
AN: 0E07907153\7E01202039\0J08003187

TI: Chemical barriers to gut infection in the desert locust: in vivo production of antimicrobial phenols by the bacterium Enterobacter agglomerans.
CT: Proceedings and abstracts, Vth International Colloquium on Invertebrate Pathology and Microbial Control, Adelaide, Australia, 20-24 August 1990.
AU: Dillon, R. J.\ Charnley, A. K.
YR: 1990
PP: 314
LA: En
AA: School of Biological Sciences, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, Avon, UK.
AB: A study in which it was established that crude faecal extracts and purified phenols from Schistocerca gregaria are toxic to the entomopathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus sphaericus is summarized. Faecal pellet extracts from first generation acridids monoassociated with Enterobacter agglomerans
contained 2 phenols in concentrations sufficient to cause inhibition of germination of M. anisopliae.
DE: Acrididae\ Orthoptera\ Insect pests\ Pathogens\ Natural enemies\Schistocerca gregaria\Enterobacter agglomerans\ symbiosis\Entomopathogenic bacteria\Pseudomonas aeruginosa\ Bacillus sphaericus\Conferences\International Colloquium on Invertebrate Pathology and Microbial Control\Entomogenous
fungi\Metarhizium anisopliae\ Schistocerca gregaria\pathogens\resistance\Pseudomonas aeruginosa\hosts\Bacillus sphaericus\Metarhizium anisopliae\ Conferences\International Colloquium on Invertebrate Pathology and Microbial Control
AN: 0E07906067\7E01201478

TI: The fate of fungal spores in the insect gut.
CT: The fungal spore and disease initiation in plants and animals [edited by Cole, G.T.; Hoch, H.C.].
AU: Dillon, R. J.\ Charnley, A. K.
YR: 1991
PP: 129-156
BN: ISBN 0-306-43454-7
LA: En
MS: 187 ref.
AA: School of Biological Sciences, University of Bath, Bath, Avon BA2 7AY, UK.
AB: Mandibulate as opposed to suctorial insects ingest a wide range of microorganisms with their food but the failure of most pathogenic fungi to invade via the gut, "preferring" rather the external cuticle, underlies the inhospitable nature of the gut. The present contribution considers the reasons for the relatively low incidence
of gut invasion with particular reference to the well-studied interaction between Metarhizium anisopliae and Schistocerca gregaria, although many other insect-fungus relations are considered where relevant. It seems surprising, for instance, that S. gregaria and related Orthoptera provide the only examples to date of the involvement of diet or microbially derived antifungal compounds in the host defence against pathogenic fungi, which in part probably reflects the paucity of work in this area. It should be borne in mind that the increasing use of artificial media for rearing experimental insects may not only deprive those insects of antifungal secondary plant chemicals but may also reduce the gut microbiota, among which yeasts have been shown to play a particularly important protective role against fungi.
DE: Digestive system\ Deuteromycotina\ Entomogenous fungi\ Microbial flora\ Yeasts\Metarhizium anisopliae\insects\ infection\Entomogenous fungi\ Insect pests\ Acrididae\ Orthoptera\ Natural enemies\ Physiology\ Digestive system\ Antifungal agents\ Secondary chemicals\ Microbial insecticides\ Fungal insecticides\ Microbial flora\Schistocerca gregaria\pathogens\Beauveria bassiana\hosts\Entomogenous fungi
AN: 0J08000763\0E08105561